One Tree Hill Sketchbook

This page contains the full text of the sixth edition (1997) of my 'One Tree Hill sketchbook'. It has not yet made it into print, but here it is electronically for those interested enough in an updated text. Follow the third link below to view some of the illustrations. The work is 12,500 words long and would best be read offline. (See Technical page if you don't know how to do that. The link to the Tech. page is at the bottom of this page.)

Foreword to this edition.

This is the sixth edition of the One Tree Hill sketchbook and the first issue in the new A5 format which should be easier to handle, read and shelve. The inclusion of cross referencing, footnotes, appendix and an index should make it an even more valuable study tool for students of local history. Each edition of the book, since it's inception in 1977, has been updated and improved. This edition continues the tradition. All the illustration and information from the previous enlarged edition has been retained, in some cases re-written and complemented with the addition of new material.

Background to the book


The book began in 1977, as a secondary school year 12 Art private study project. My original intention was to study the architectural styles of the buildings in my local area. The whole exercise may have ended there, but for the interest that my sketching generated with those people whose homes I visited. My father was a great support and spent many hours assisting me in finding worthy buildings to sketch and gave me much encouragement and help in promoting the book that eventually evolved from the project. A few of my teachers became quite excited about the concept of a sketchbook and found, within the school system, resources to print and bind it. I believe it was Smithfield High School where the plates were made, and the pages were printed. I personally silk screened all of the covers of the first batch of 125 or so, in the art room at Craigmore High School. I think the binding was done by a very kind person at Roseworthy Agricultural College. While searching around my district for buildings to sketch, fascinating stories and unexpected sights began to unfold before me, emerging from the private properties of pioneering families, often hidden deep in the valleys and along the back roads. I discovered that the area in which I lived had a rich agricultural history dating back to the colony's establishment in the 1830's. History had always been of interest to me, but had never been this real. With the enthusiasm of long-time residents such as Mrs. Rose Shillabeer and also Mr. Bill Kelly, who showed me around, my weekends developed into private tours of fascinating places. After chatting with the locals over a cup of tea, I would be left for two hours or more at a time to complete an ink sketch. I met many local families and individuals and got a good feel for the district's history. This information was supplemented by research, chiefly from the extensive files of the Local History section of the Munno Para Public Library. I would like to thank those dedicated people who have built up and maintained the files at the library. It is a priceless resource and I hope the collection continues to be maintained and added to. I would like to encourage any individuals who have items of local historical interest to consider passing on copies to the librarian responsible for the collection. I would also encourage feedback from any persons who disagree with information contained in the book or who have additional information that could be included in successive printings. I have included contact information in the front of the book.

One Tree Hill


One Tree Hill is a small South Australian rural town in the foothills of the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges, 25 kilometres north of the capital city, Adelaide. The name is perhaps an inappropriate one for the district which is well wooded, though the town itself did develop adjacent to a large, lone tree on a hill, which was very prominent from the plains below. The area has a long and rich history by South Australian standards, having been settled by Europeans shortly after the establishment of the colony of South Australia. Over a century and a half ago the land division began with the British colonists as they quickly usurped the traditional tribal lands of the Kaurna Plains and Peramangk Aboriginals who had hunted and gathered in the dry sclerophyl forests, temperate woodlands, heathlands and grasslands of the area for possibly thousands of years. In a very short span of time, the area was divided up by the Government surveyors into workmen's blocks and special surveys and was sold to would-be immigrants in England, usually sight unseen, with glowing reports of fortunes to be made in the exciting new colony. The face of the land was set for a destructive onslaught which was to last for decades and which was to result in the denuding of the woodlands and the annihilation of a people and local extinction of many species of unique organisms.

The area's first human inhabitants, the Aboriginals,

visited the area we now call One Tree Hill, chiefly in the warmer parts of the year as the area was cooler and better watered than the plains. The hills at this time were well wooded with tree species that had been in the area for around 6000 years. see Footnote 1 Large numbers of the trees were of great age. Along the rivers and creeks and wide valleys could be found tall, heavy Eucalypts. Many of these trees had wide, hollowed bases large enough for the Aboriginals to use as shelters. There were many such shelter trees in use by the aboriginals as late as the 1840's. European settlers also used these huge old trees as accommodation from time to time, usually on a temporary basis while they established themselves and built more substantial structures see Footnote 2 Most living things depended on these trees. They were the single most important organism in the environment, providing stability and fertility for the soils, a food source and also habitat for thousands of other organisms. The Aboriginal did impact on the environment with their use of fire to encourage pasture for their hunting quarry. However, this practise did not remove the trees, it only encouraged more grass amongst the trees until the shrubbery regenerated once again. European man has always removed the trees. The highlands of Scotland, the Yorkshire moors and the hills and valleys of One Tree Hill all attest to the zeal of the European man and his axe. Within 25 years of European settlement, so much forest had been cleared in South Australia that the Woods and Forests department was eventually established to reafforestate and provide for future timber needs in the State. Clearing see Footnote 3 went on relentlessly even until the present day. Natural History of the area Prior to the beginning of the clearing activity of the European colonizers, the botanical diversity of the area was great. The better watered areas supported forests of tall, wide Eucalypt's, growing to 30 metres and more with massive girths. The heathlands were like vast gardens of brightly flowering orchids, vines, bushes and shrubs as well as many species of small to medium height trees. Patches and remnants of this vegetation still exist. One Tree Hill still has sections of roadside remnant vegetation within short walking distance of the main street where orchids flower prolifically for short seasonal bursts. Some forest giants still exist on backroads and on private grazing land. Every year a few more of them blow over or succumb to fire, insect attack or other phenomena. Much seed is still dispersed but with grazing and other land usage, very few new trees survive. When all the giants are gone there will be no younger trees to replace them. See appendix 3 for a list of plant species native to One Tree Hill and surrounding districts. The rocky ridges were the home of the Australian grass trees or Black-boys; Xanthorrhoea quadrangulata and X. semiplana, with their tall twisted trunks and flower spears. These unique plants grow only a few centimetres each year. In a good season, where more rain has fallen in the warmer, brighter months, growth may accelerate, but even so, the five foot specimens in Para Wirra see Footnote 4 must be over one hundred years old. Fascinating animals abounded such as Echidnas, Western Grey Kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops), Emus and Possums (Common Brushtail, Common Ringtail). These species still reside in Para Wirra or have been re-introduced. Many more animals lived in the district but are now extinct here. Early studies suggest that the following species once ranged in this part of the Southern Lofty's. Three species of Quoll (native cats), Brush tailed Phascogale, Yellow footed Antechinus, Common Dunnart, Fat tailed Dunnart, Southern Brown Bandicoot, Western Barred Bandicoot, Bilby, Common Wombat, Western Pygmy Possum, Feathertail Glider, Brush tailed Bettong, Burrowing Bettong, 8 or so species of Bats, Water Rat, White footed rabbit rat, Mitchells Hopping Mouse, Bush Rat, Swamp Rat, Dingo, and possibly Koalas in pre-colonial times as there are several species of Koala food tree in the area such as River Red Gum, Blue Gum and Manna Gum. see Footnote 5 However it is generally accepted that Koalas in South Australia would have been restricted to areas in the South East of the state. The most likely of the three subspecies of Koala to have frequented the South-Eastern forests would have been the Victorian subspecies, Phascolarctos cinereus victor. see Footnote 6 Predation by feral cats and foxes; competition for food from rabbits and feral goats; habitat encroachment by man including land clearing for pasture, deforestation for timber and fuel for steam driven equipment; quarrying and mining; damming and diversion of water courses; competition with native food plants of introduced weed species; hotter, more destructive wild fires, and probably a host of other causes have all resulted in the local extinction of these special and wonderful creatures, which once made the bush a bustling, intriguing, alive place at dawn and dusk every day for tens of thousands of years before the colonization of the white man. Many types of birds are still to be found here, either resident or visiting populations, although some of the ground nesting species are now locally extinct such as the Southern Stone Curlew. Para Wirra boasts a three page list of native birds found in the park including Grebes, Cormorants, Herons, Ducks, Teal, Goose, Kite, Goshawk, Eagles, Falcons, Kestrels, Quail, Plover, Dotterel, Galah, Doves, Pigeons, Cockatoos, Lorikeets, Cockatiel, Rosellas, Parrots, Budgerigars, Cuckoos, Owls, Nightjar, Kookaburra, Kingfishers, Rainbow Bird, Swallows, Martins, Robins, Pipits, Shrikes, Triller, Babbler, Songlark, Chat, Thornbills, Wrens, Fantails, Wagtail, Flycatcher, Whistlers, Sittella, Tree-creepers, Mistletoe bird, pardalotes, Honeyeaters, Miners, Wattlebirds, Finches, Firetails, Magpies, Crows, Currawongs, and Butcher Birds. Para Wirra is one of the last bastions of nature as it was. Of course there are no Aboriginals there now, very little wild life in comparison to when they were hunting there, and much of the vegetation is re-growth but a walk through the park gives glimpses as to what it might have been like, and what has been saved we must be ever grateful for.

The Aboriginal people of the area


The Aboriginals who once lived in the Western half of One Tree Hill were members of the Kaurna plains tribe. They numbered approximately 300 individuals in the main local group and their strictly defined tribal lands ranged from near Crystal Brook to Cape Jervis and inland to the Mount Lofty Ranges. The Peramangk tribe inhabited the eastern section. Their lands extended from Gawler and Angaston to Strathalbyn and Myponga. Other tribes existed outside these areas and trade was carried out with them. Also, the men of each tribe were compelled to marry women of another tribe. They lived a hunter-gatherer existence and provided that food remained available, they generally stayed in one camp for a long time, several months at a time where possible. In the winter the Kaurna people would stay on the plains and the coast where the weather was milder and definitely drier.than the hills. In summer they would move to the hills and ranges, traveling by way of the creeks and rivers. The tribes were divided into family groups or clans, and they sheltered during the summer under a makeshift semi-circle of branches which were arranged on the side of the prevailing winds. The winter structures were more robust and were made watertight using bark, earth, grass or seaweed when on the coast. Large hollow trees were used for shelter by the Peramangk people. Clothing was minimal in summer but in winter, cloaks of possum fur were worn. The possum skins were sown together using animal tendons and a sharpened kangaroo bone to make the holes. Daily routines were dominated by hunting (for the men), and food gathering for the women. The men would go out in groups, usually daily depending on the availability of game, and return with the remains of their catch in the evening to share it with the women and the aged, and the children. The women would gather roots and berries, lizards, shellfish and the like. Camps were always set up near a permanent water source. Elaborate ceremonies and dances were performed on moonlit evenings. The dead were buried sitting upright in a wide hole facing the birth place of their mother. The body was covered with the leaves of a special tree and then the hole was covered over with earth and branches and logs were placed on top to prevent dingoes from digging up the body. Colonization of South Australia in 1836 brought an abrupt end to not only to Aboriginal culture, but to their very existence as a distinct group of people. Although some interest was officially shown by the government of the time to ensure the well being of the Aboriginals, the ideas the government had and the policies they implemented were based on the notion that the European culture was superior and that the Aboriginal savage should become Christian and civilized. The cultures were so far apart, each understanding the other so little, that strife and suffering ensued and of course the stronger culture dominated. The demise of the Adelaide Tribes was so swift that very little information was ever recorded about their culture. In fact a conscious effort was made to destroy their culture and to assimilate the people by sending them off to missions. What we know of them we can only surmise by the few artifacts and archaeological evidences they left behind and by examining the customs of some of the neighbouring tribes who were allowed to linger a little longer and who were recorded. Disease and killings caused by skirmishes over property contributed greatly to the rapid demise of the Aboriginal. European diseases such as measles, chicken pox, the common cold and venereal disease caused great misery and suffering to the native peoples and small pox decimated their numbers even before white man arrived in the area, as it spread down the Murray River from the Eastern states. The times and circumstances of the early 1800's were difficult, to say the least. Obviously they were more difficult for the native inhabitants who were slowly but surely being pushed out of lands they considered a shared resource. They were used to moving on from one location to another when circumstances dictated change. Eventually there would have been no land to go back to. Altercations between native peoples and settlers often turned nasty. We can't assume the complete innocence of either party, nor apportion all of the blame to one or the other in many instances, although certainly there are many horror stories. The aboriginals did attack settlers on occasions. There are no records of this happening in One Tree Hill, but the forests of the district extended back to the Murraylands where there were many reports of this sort of incident. It is on record that in later years, members of some Murray tribes visited One Tree Hill to receive blankets, rations and medical comforts from an Aborigines' Department depot, in One Tree Hill. This was one of 6 depots in the northern area. It has also been recorded that Aborigines camped in the Gould's Creek area and held corroborees there. They were unpopular with the settlers and in many cases were chased off properties on which they had decided to camp. Hollow trees which they used for shelter, in some instances were cut down to dissuade them from returning. Many skeletons and camp sites have been unearthed in One Tree Hill, most commonly during road works. Some rock paintings still exist on private property.

The Settlers


When the new immigrants legally purchased their parcels of Australian bush land, in rural areas, they settled with European notions of farming. Australian soils are recognised by experts as being amongst the poorest in fertility in the world. Many settlers would have found this out the hard way, through failed crops and very difficult weather conditions which further reduced what were once mature, dynamic forest soils. On removal of the forests, the cycle of soil replenishment and protection was broken and soils suffered degradation and erosion. The tools used to 'tame' the bush were obviously very basic, even primitive by today's standards. Axes, picks and horse or bullock drawn ploughs. There was little automation. Transport was chiefly by horse or Bullock team. Initially there were very few roads. Those roads that were fashioned, were only of earth, and later of earth and crushed and rolled stones. Travel upon these crude roads, especially the transportation of goods and produce, was slow. The countryside seemed vast and daunting. At times, it was a real effort just to traverse a few miles, especially in winter. To the early settlers the country seemed anything but fragile. They set about to try and change it to their own advantage, to build a life for themselves and their children. It was difficult work. Having to contend with wild dogs and vagrant Aboriginals was only a part of it. Most of the country in One Tree Hill was wooded and the settlers set about cutting down small areas at a time to allow native grasses to grow to feed their stock. They used axes and hand saws in heat that they had never experienced before and battled with flies and insects the likes of which they had never seen. Before they could plant any crops they had to grub out or burn the stumps, and plough the ground with the aid of a horse or bullock (if they had one) or dig it all with a spade. In many areas, stones and rocks had to be gathered up. Many farms have great piles of stones in corners of paddocks. The abundant wildlife of the time would have been nothing but a menace to them as they struggled to raise seedlings to mature plants. Of course, the strains of seed they had to work with were much inferior to the high yield grains that Australia has managed to develop over the years. The vegetables and grains that they had to work with, originated in cooler and wetter parts of the earth. The uncertainty of the water supply was always a big problem in this, the driest state in the driest continent on earth, although One Tree Hill is reasonably well watered compared to 90 per cent of the state. Adequate rainfall between May and September and next to nothing the rest of the year save the occasional shower or thunderstorm was what they had to live with. Most of the rivers and creeks dried up annually. Wells had to be dug deep into the earth and water carted by bucket.


The first dwellings

constructed in One Tree Hill were usually small one or two room huts. There were several methods of construction. Wattle and daub huts were very common. Thin sticks from the natural shrubs, were woven together and covered with mud to make the walls. Bark or thatch was used for the roof. Slab huts were common in One Tree Hill. The huts were dominated by a stone fireplace and chimney forming one wall supporting three walls of cut and split red gum slabs arranged vertically, with a thatch or more commonly, bark roof. The bark was held down with long, straight poles cut from saplings. Some huts were made of stone with mud mortar, supporting slabs of wood covered with earth. Windows were prized items imported from England. A very fine example of a slab hut can be found on the Kirklands property near Snake Gully in One Tree Hill. The roof was replaced with iron at a later date. The interior featured plastered walls and a wattle and daub ceiling. The Kirklands hut was built close to a creek by Alexander Kirk in 1839. His descendant, Alan Kirk was 84 years old when I met him and he was renowned as a water diviner. He found water on my father's property on Sampson Flat using a bent piece of fencing wire held in front of him as he walked. When he passed over an underground stream, the wire would swing around. Several streams were located and traced to a point where they met. This, he advised would give a greater volume of water when the bore was sunk.Our bore was sunk at the advised location and yielded 4000 gallons an hour. Alan Kirks property has been used for many years for grazing cattle and sheep. At one time he picked up milk from One Tree Hill dairies in what would now be a vintage buckboard truck. The truck has long been in retirement but is gently blending into the rustic landscape in a quiet corner of the homestead grounds. Dairies were once common in One Tree Hill. Many farms, even if they didn't run dairy cattle, had at least one milking cow for home use. A common activity of an evening was to take your milk pot and go for a walk to a neighbours property where they performing the evening milking; have a chat and fill up the pot ready for breakfast the next day. I enjoyed this activity a few times myself when I was younger. Eventually we had a Jersey cow of our own. The milk would develop a thick layer of rich cream overnight which could just be spooned off and used separately. The land use in the area has always been diverse. Sheep and cattle of many and varied breeds have always been there to a greater or lesser extent. Orchards and vineyards were once common. Mr. Reuben Richardson of the Goulds Creek area planted an orange orchard in the 1840's and enjoyed good sales as his oranges ripened later than those available elsewhere. Many properties had a vineyard of their own, generally only for their personal use and home made wines were enjoyed at meal times or special occasions. see Footnote 7 In the fertile valleys, many types of produce could be grown. Some settlers found potatoes to be viable. However much of the land proved very difficult for farming, as evidenced by the name applied to a farm which was later incorporated into the north western corner of Para Wirra National Park; 'Misery Farm'. Much land was successfully cropped. Roy Walter of `Cross Hill' who was also 84 when I met him in 1977 was the third generation of his family on that property. He recalled helping his father on the farm where they grew wheat and hay. They had five plough horses using at first a single furrow plough, then a double furrow plough and then a three furrow 'stump jump' plough, which must have been quite a welcome innovation in One Tree Hill, as the timbered areas were gradually converted to fields. This plough, a once celebrated South Australian invention enabled crops to be sown on land that had been cleared of timber, without the necessity of removing the tree stumps. A conventional plough would be wrenched to a halt on hitting a stump. This would not have been too pleasant for the poor horse or bullock who was pulling the plough and would have caused much consternation and extra work for the farmer. The stump jump plough rode over the stumps by utilizing a unique hinging system. Timber clearing for pasture and cropping was a widespread activity in One Tree Hill as it was everywhere in the country at that period in time. These days the practice is looked on with horror and is seen as wanton destruction of precious natural environment. But when it was carried out, the view was favourable. It was seen as improving the land; converting it from wasteland to productive farm land which could earn families a good living and boost the states' economy. In fact the governments of the day offered incentives to farmers to clear the land and turn it into productive uses. The timber that was cleared also provided an important source of income for the farmer. The Flour Mills of Salisbury, Smithfield and Gawler needed large quantities of fuel to power their steam driven equipment. Eighty tons of wood per year were carted from Cross Hill alone to Edward Davey and Sons Flour Mill in Salisbury (later Heidenreichs). Next to the mill was a brick kiln which also burned Cross Hill Wood. Roy told the story of how a Mr. Reid from Salisbury had a huge steam engine with three trailers which would cart the wood to Smithfield. A water tender would have to accompany the steam engine to put out roadside fires which it would inadvertently cause. Cross Hill also bred cattle and for many years had a dairy with 30 to 40 milking cows. The dairy was behind the house (visible in the illustration). Butter was made here at the rate of 120 to 130 pounds per week. The butter carried a Cross Hill stamp and was sold in North Adelaide for a halfpenny a pound. The dairy was built partially underground to keep it cool. Cross Hill land today is still well wooded with fine tall trees. The adjoining access road was named Cross Hill Road after the farm and it is lined with tall Eucalypts which form a shady canopy over most of the length of the road. There are many structures in One Tree Hill which have been built into hillsides or even just dug into the ground and roofed over. These rooms were used before the advent of refrigeration to keep produce cool. Households had to be reasonably self-sufficient and so needed a fairly large room to store quantities of foods. Cool houses can be found on most old properties in One Tree Hill. At `View Park', a neighbour of Cross Hill, the house was built on top of the cool room as can be seen in the illustration. The cool room was also used as a dairy and for salting hams and bacon. The home was built in the 1860's by a Mr. Jones who had previously worked at the Lady Alice Mines. The property was used for grazing cattle and sheep and some cropping. Timber clearing took place there also. Another local side-industry was quarrying. Excavations on View Park land are evidence of this activity. The stone from here was used for road metal. I can recall driving over very evenly stony patches of road with straight edges near Snake Gully in the late seventies, before the road was bituminised. These were sections of sealed roads as they were constructed in the early days. Dirt roads were fine in summer, especially at the slow speeds of the early modes of transport but wet weather traveling was quite a problem. To overcome this, boggy sections of the road were sealed with cracked stones. Larger stones were quarried and then deposited along the road where road gangs using hammers would smash them into smaller stones and spread them evenly over the road. They were rolled flat with a steam roller weighted down with rocks till it weighed seven tons.

Steam power was not the only energy harnessed in these times. One Tree Hill had its own flour mill which operated by use of a water wheel. It was situated in an extremely deep valley of Smith's Creek, where the foothills of One Tree Hill met the Plains of Smithfield, (now Craigmore), adjacent Uley Road. The structure was two stories high but still hidden from view from both roads which pass by on either side of it. Its inaccessibility must have been a major problem for farmers delivering their grain, or for any movements to and from the mill, and this factor almost certainly was a major contributor to its downfall. The water-wheel mechanism was not a huge success either. During the winter, Smith's Creek provided a reasonable flow of water over the wheel and although the stream was perennial, the volume of water in summer was greatly reduced. The mill's proprietor valiantly constructed a series of dams so that the flow could be regulated and the necessary force of water released, albeit sporadically, but eventually he conceded defeat and installed a steam engine instead. The establishment of larger mills in Salisbury and Gawler eventually led to its closure. What a marvellous .example of the resourcefulness and enterprise of the pioneers who opened up this country. What great confidence in the future they must have had. They were exciting times. Times of growth and expansion. Building the Empire in newly discovered lands. Establishing new industries, building a future. One man who had such a vision was Moses Bendle Garlick. He opened up the area just above the mill and named it Uleybury after his home in Uley, Gloucestershire. 'Bury' is a gaelic term denoting a tree covered plateau. Initially Uleybury was a neighbouring Hamlet of One Tree Hill. It retained its separate identity until 1943, when the residents of Unley complained that too much of their mail was being misdirected to Uley. At the time that the mill was in full swing, UleybuUleybury was a flourishing rural community, full of colonial englishmen who were creating a Cotswold village in a new land. Only a few stone ruins remain today amongst large cropping and grazing paddocks. Homes have returned in recent years. Small farmlets once again line Uley road but the homes are large and modern and their owners generally work in services and industries elsewhere. The rural lifestyle is enjoyed as a pleasant passtime on weekends. John Gardner of the "Melbourne Sun", in an article in the "Bunyip", Friday November 6,1953, shed some light on the history of Uleybury, in an entertaining way. See the appendix for his article. The Uley Churchyard was until recently a valuable relic of a fascinating past. It remained unused and this was a major cause of its eventual demise. The moss covered church built in 1851, the obelisk erected for the district's founder, the baptismal font by the side of the church and the wealth of tombstones telling the story of all the districts inhabitants - they were all here. They had worshipped in this church, they had carried on conversations here in the churchyard and they were finally laid to rest here. Names such as Alexander, Barritt, Blake, Bowman, Buttfield, Coulter, Davy, Hogarth, Hooking, Ifould, Kentish, McCallum, McKenzie, Sampson, Thomas, Twelftree, Whitelaw, and others could be found here. Familiar to residents of Elizabeth, whose streets bear their names. Evidence of another world when time moved more slowly than it does for us. Life was much simpler then. Uley Chapel was destroyed in 1981 by a generation of film and television watching suburban adolescents who knew nothing of the building's significance and cared much less. They lived in a fantasy world of horror movie churchyards and crypts. Napoleon see Footnote 8 has often been mentioned when speaking of the Uleybury area. His troops' firing of a canon ball at the face of the Egyptian Sphinx was wanton vandalism to express some form of dominance. Uley chapel and its churchyard were subjected to this sort of mindless destruction for years and now all that remains is some of the perimeter walling. see Footnote 9 Uley history lives on now in its Schoolhouse on Cornishmans Hill Road which is now a museum. Moses Garlick and Uley Chapel's first Minister, Pastor J. P. Buttfield were both instrumental in approaching the government of the day for funds to build a schoolhouse inUley. They were offered 150 pounds on condition that residents equal this figure. The building went ahead on land donated by the "cricket playing, land owning" Parson, Pastor J. P. Buttfield. There were protests from One Tree Hill residents, who felt that there was no need for a new school so close to the existing Precolumb School, but the building was erected at a cost of 400 pounds and was completed in 1856. Teachers and their families lived in premises at the rear of the school room. A Mr. Mattingly was the first School Master. Reverend Buttfield also taught at the school until 1862. The school was run along the lines of a church-school until 1874 when education became the responsibility of the State. In 1887 the Headmistress was Marion C. Kekwick, widow of Mr. W. Kekwick, second in command of John McDouall Stuart's celebrated expedition from Adelaide to Darwin. see Footnote 10 In 1943 the school became known as the One Tree Hill Rural School. The school was finally vacated in 1971, being at that time the oldest school building still in use by the Education department. There were other schools in the area. Precolumb School operated from 1855 until 1938 when its pupils were transfered to the Uley School. It was built by the parents of the district. Its land was donated by a pioneer farmer and wine grower John Sampson, who held a property called "Precolumb Farm", from which Precolumb Road derived its name. The flat valley to the east of the township was mostly owned by him, and was named Sampson Flat in his honour. To the west of Sampson's land, George Johnson held property. Johnson Road was named after him. John Sampson allowed a portion of his land to be used as the village sports ground where cricket and tennis were regularly played for a period of 80 years. The land was divided up and sold and part of it eventually became my parents property where I lived till I left home. Every year on the Sampson Flat Sports Ground, a carnival was organised and run by the Rechabite Lodge. Many events were staged including sheaf tossing, log chopping and even bike racing over the rough metal roads. In the evening a grand ball was held in the institute, featuring Adelaide's top entertainers. Precolumb School was used as the Lodge Room by the Rechabites and as the village meeting place before the institute was built in 1906. It was also operated as a church school with school masters selected for the dual roll of Minister and Teacher. Uleybury School opened as a Museum in 1978. Mr. Hedley Lang, a former teacher at the school performed the unveiling of the Commemorative Plaque. He also donated much material relevant to the history of the school including the desk he used while teacher at the school. The museum has been set up as a school room and its theme is educational history. All the exhibits pertain to this theme. Very old wooden desks, slates, ink wells, attendance rolls, blackboards with original lessons chalked up by Hedley Lang, and many more interesting items are on display every Sunday from 2 pm to 4 pm. A voluntary committee runs the museum, see Footnote 11 supported by Munno Para Council who restored the premises through a SURS Grant in 1977. Tenafeate School operated for children who lived in the vicinity of Para Wirra. It was used between 1937 and 1951 and was of prefabricated construction. The area was named Tenafeate after the residence of a Scotsman, John Campbell who originally settled in that part of the district. He built a two-storey residence which he called Tenafeate, an adaptation of a Gaelic name meaning 'The Whistling House'. The sketch on the cover of this book illustrates a slab hut and a larger homestead from the Tenafeate area. Nearby is a residence named Milton Bank, which was originally built as a coach-house to service coaches and riders, and their horses, going to and from the Barossagold fields and other areas further afield. It was built around 1860. The building originally featured a curved roof. This roof was later replaced with the present structure. Evidence of the curved roof can be seen in the western wall of the large centre room at the top of the stairs. The coach house was built by a Mr. Grant who at the time was leasing Yattalunga. A home for Mr. Grant's younger brother was to have been built on the hill opposite the coach house. Tragically, he perished in the North of the state whilst on a journey. His remains were brought back to One Tree Hill and laid to rest at Tyeka, another of the Grant properties. A willow tree was planted by his mother above his grave. It grew from a sprig taken from the willow tree growing over Napoleon's grave. see Footnote 12 For many years it flourished and spawned many other willows in the district. Mrs. Paine of Sampson Flat, our neighbour, once related to me that the huge willow growing on her property was originally a switch taken from one of these trees by her husband. He used it to keep away the flies as he rode home on his horse one day. Cobb and Co. coaches regularly called in at Milton Bank on their runs. In the 1870's, a bullock team with a huge boiler destined for the Lady Alice Mines, called at the coach-house. It took them six weeks to cart the boiler from Port Adelaide. Mr. William Bowman purchased Milton Bank in the late 1800's and built it as it is today. After Mr. Bowman, the brother of George Taylor owned it. George Taylor was a horse dentist. His services were very much in demand and necessitated much travel, even to areas in the north of the state, pulling out and filing back horse's teeth. He owned much land along Tenafeate Creek between Milton Bank and One Tree Hill township. He also owned 40-50 acres near Uley Chapel. On his creek property he built a house and called it 'Sunnybrae'. The land on which it was built was once part of an 80 acre Aboriginal reserve. Blankets and rations and medical supplies were once distributed here to tribes of Aboriginals. The land was later rented to farmers and was eventually divided up into workers' blocks. The settlers in this area built wattle and daub huts initially. A family named Westley built a two storey house on the property adjacent to Sunnybrae. They grew Thyme on several hillsides there. Some Sage was also grown. They cut, dried and separated the leaf from the stalk and sold it to Master Butchers and Fowlers. There was also a freestone quarry on the property. Tipperary Lodge in Para Wirra National Park was built from this stone. There was also a sand quarry in this area

Most rural communities have a town section where general services are located. One Tree Hill developed a fairly small township. The district's location was such that it was close to several fairly large centres of population with their associated industries and facilities. Tea Tree Gully, Salisbury, Elizabeth, Smithfield and Gawler all adjoin One Tree Hill. This has meant that One Tree Hill residents have always had easy access to shopping facilities, medical care, law enforcement and any other services that they might require from nearby towns and there was no need for a duplication of those services in their own township. Some properties were closer to Smithfield than they were to the One Tree Hill Township. Some were closer to Gawler than the local township. Salisbury was also within easy reach of most residents. From the 1950's, Elizabeth was within easy reach. Adelaide was also fairly accessible. Roy Walter reminisced of the much looked forward to weekly jaunt to Smithfield railway station where a train would be caught to Adelaide and a night at the Theatre Royal. For many years there was no township in One Tree Hill. Its beginning was signaled in 1851 when One Tree Hill would undoubtedly have been put on the map, so to speak, when bullock teamsters came to know of the licensed way stop newly established on the hills-route to Gawler and the Barossa. The Inn was in a fine location built right on the main hills track, directly opposite the very tree after which the town came to be known. The name One Tree Hill was a complete misnomer for the town which was to form on the edge of a forest. Originally, the name was applied to a single hill on which grew a huge blue gum which could be seen from the plains. The tree was used as a survey point. It was a natural feature that could be used as a point of reference, a landmark useful when giving directions. An early resident, W. O. C. Blackham recorded, "This district was named from a large blue-gum tree which grew on the top of a hill and so acted as a trig. It was the last of the gum trees west of the wooded country. The straight, dry trunk of the old tree stood there till 1890 when it was burnt down. When my father first saw it in 1841, about half of it was green, and the remainder dry." At one time, in recent history, an effort was made by the council to plant a new tree in place of the old. Five trees now flourish there. The exact location of the old tree is much disputed and I could not get a definite answer from anyone. Bill Kelly of 'Yelki', suggested that it was a short distance down Walter Road from the Inn, on the right, just inside the fence but these days not even a stump remains. As well as housing the local post office, which moved from a location near the Little Para River, the Inn had the distinction of being the venue for meetings of the Munno Para East District Council, who held their very first meeting in a room at the Inn, in 1853. The old One Tree Hill road is still visible in front of the Inn. The original Inn building was at the rear. Looking at the Inn from the back, two distinct structures can be seen. The section on the right was the original building. Built of different stone, adjacent to the original portion, on the left, were rooms which doubled the size of the Inn. A little later, several rooms were added to the front. The Inn is a most unusual structure, in that these front rooms are only accessible from outside the building. There were no inner doors connecting these rooms with the rest of the house. These rooms of course were used as lodging for travelers. Originally, the verandah at the front was a separate structure but it was incorporated into the roof when the building was refurbished with a roof of iron. In 1858, a new Post Office was established further up the road from the Inn. The building also housed a general store and featured a large cellar underneath where produce including local wine was stored for sale. It was around this building that the town proper began to form. The first Post Master was a Mr. Francis Buttfield. After him, a Mr. R Feibig ran the store. He lived a little further up the road. In 1877, a stone store-room, complete with its own fireplace and chimney, was built on the left of the shop. This can be seen in the illustration which is a view from the yard at the rear of the store-room. The hitching rail at which customers would have secured their horses, in time gave way to petrol bowsers. The shop frontage changed with successive modernization's and the old store-room and yard were replaced in the 1980's by a group of new shops. The Store and Main street, One Tree Hill. Horses are still tied up outside the store from time to time and I am sure that many people hope that this will always be the case. The general store is still very much a traditional country store where a wide range of products and services are offered. It is also a hub of the community and its proprietors are relied on by residents and community groups for much transfer of information. To the left of the store and post office was the residence and business of Andrew Shillabeer, the town blacksmith. The Smithy was an important service, providing horse shoeing and all manner of metal fabrication such as the manufacture and repair of gates, tools and farm equipment. For many years a private residence and also a surgery, the structure was partly demolished and incorporated into a tavern in 1990. Across the road and down a little further was built a fine church. The land on which it was built was a government grant to William Henry Gartrell. Prior to the churches construction, quite a large number of people gathered for worship under a tree on the western side of the property. The block of land was transfered to the One Tree Hill Methodist Church on July 23rd,1867 at the cost of Five Pounds. At the time, the church was part of the Gawler Wesleyan Circuit. On Sunday, August l2th,1867, two commemorative services were preached to large crowds in the open air and the foundation stone for the new church was laid the next day. The 1867 role book showed 22 scholars but this had increased to 60 by the next year. In October 1965, the One Tree Hill church separated from the Gawler Circuit to which it belonged for almost 100 years, and became part of the Elizabeth Mission (now the United Parish of Elizabeth). Extensive renovations were carried out at this time. The portico on the front was added in the 1980's. One Tree Hill Uniting Church. with portico added. To the left of the church was an old wooden shed which at one time housed the local fire truck. Before the creation of the Country Fire Service, bush fires, which are prevalent in the district in summer, had to be left to run their course and property was defended by each landholder as best he could. Some of the larger estates had their own fire trucks. Until 1988 when a larger fire station was built not far from the church, the fire shed was across the road next to the blacksmiths house. Across from the Post Office was built the institute. Its construction began in 1906 and on November 7th of that year, Edward Kelly of Yelki homestead laid the foundation stone. He was presented with an inscribed silver trowel on this occasion. His grandson Bill Kelly, showed me the trowel when I visited him to research Yelki's history in 1977. The institute cost about 600 pounds to build. The money was loaned by Arthur Thomas. The stone for the structure came from a quarry on the O'Connor property on Cornishman's Hill Road. Cornishman's Hill Road was named after a Mr. Skews who had a hill-top property in the vicinity. He was from Cornwall. The M.P. of that time, a Mr. Reg Ruder, conducted a money-raising activity on the occasion of the foundation stone laying, and a substantial sum was raised from the one hundred or so people who attended the occasion. The institute took over the role hitherto provided by Precolumb School as the town meeting place. An elevated stage was constructed inside the institute with change-rooms underneath. Stairs connected the stage to the underground room. These stairs were curtained off during productions. The stage was eventually removed and the underground room became a library which was in use right up until the 1960's. It suffered a bit from dampness which didn't help the books. Other uses of the institute have included regular weekly dances, special functions and meetings of Scouts and Cubs, a table tennis club, the C.W.A. Progress Association and Agricultural Bureau. A supper room was built on the side of the institute after the Second World War and was dedicated to those who served in the war. A monument was erected in front of the institute to honour One Tree Hill residents who gave their lives in both World Wars. Names and photographs of those who served are displayed in the hall and trees were dedicated to the men. To meet the needs of a growing community, the hall was doubled in size on l5th December,1978. Facilities were also upgraded. McGilp road, on the western side of the institute was named after a local resident, Lachlan Keith McGilp who in 1929 gave a parcel of land near the end of the road to be used as a recreation park Two popular sporting pursuits of One Tree Hill residents, Cricket and Tennis, were able to be undertaken there. Tennis courts and a cricket pitch were constructed and a grass oval planted and maintained. The institute today. At one time, One Tree Hill seemed divided between two classes of people, small farmers and wealthy land-owners. The wealthy "Toffs" had their own cliques which held parties and progressive dinners and hunting trips. They also had their Tennis team, nicknamed the "Blue-bloods."

Pastoral empires


One Tree Hill land supported some great pastoral empires. Gould's Creek homestead was originally named "Burrowhill" by Joseph Gould who purchased seven sections of land along Gould Creek, around 1844. It seems likely that the creek was named after Joseph Gould but this may not necessarily be the case, It may have been named after John Gould, the Ornithologist, after whom Mount Gould, (10 km south-east of Gould Creek) was named. Perhaps the property with its stone house and separate stone kitchen building was named Burrowhill because of the many burrows in the area which were made by Bilbies. Bilbies or `Pinkies' as they were referred to by Reuben Richardson who settled in the same area, were Long-Eared Bandicoots. Richardson recorded that the Pinkies were rare in 1840, but that the burrows were being taken over by Kangaroo Rats. The two South Australian sub-species of Bilby are now extinct. Joseph Gould used his property for raising cattle and dairying, enlarging his property as he prospered. Gould's eldest daughter married William Kelly in 1848. The property passed on to them and they built on to the house the two storey section that can be seen in the illustration. In 1939 a second storey was added to the original portion of the house at the rear. The hand-fashioned natural stonework of the gracious two-storey home was framed by an intricate white wooden balcony which extended across the front and along the western side. On the eastern side of the house stood the separate kitchen built of stone, and alongside it the old vine-covered wine cellars which were later used as a garage. At the back of and on the western side of the house was a fine, mature garden of many shrubs and old orange trees, which extended down to the banks of Gould Creek. Right alongside the creek was a very old stone stable with a hay loft above and a very old water pump alongside. To the north of the stables was a large traditional iron shearing shed and horse dressage area. The whole homestead was in a very deep valley with extremely steep hills enclosing it on all sides. The creek which ran through it was studded with huge red gums and willows. Trout could be found in the creek which never completely dried out. Bill and Rosemary Harvey, the fourth generation of the same family to have lived in Goulds Creek Homestead were forced to leave in 1977 when their property was compulsorily acquired by the E. & W. S. The homestead, outbuildings and 500 year old gum trees were razed to the ground to make way for the Little Para Reservoir. A tragic sacrifice in the name of progress. Water is an extremely precious commodity in this, the driest state in the driest continent on the planet. One Tree Hill has become an important catchment area to provide the expanding suburbs with a plentiful water supply. Yelki's history is linked to Gould's Creek Estate through the marriage of William Kelly to the daughter of Joseph Gould. Part of Yelki once belonged to Goulds Creek homestead and was sold to the son of William Kelly, E.A. Kelly in 1891. The property passed on to his son, Harvey William Kelly in 1922 and then on to W.A. (Bill) Kelly. Yelki homestead borders on Gould's Creek homestead property to the north-west and at one time encompassed present day Craigmore. The Smiths Creek Flour Mill was on Yelki land. The homestead overlooks the Adelaide Plains at the top of the hill on Yorktown road. `Yelki' means `camp on the hill' in an Aboriginal language. The homestead itself was built in 1909 over the cellars of an existing house built by a Mr. Turner who originally owned the lower sections of the land, now Craigmore. The stone from Turners home was used to build two workmans' cottage on the property. The new home was built from local freestone which was quarried only a quarter of a mile away. The residence comprised 12 rooms with the most up to date conveniences of the time. The garden was considered one of the most outstanding features of the homestead. One journalist wrote-"Horticultural beauty is usually conspicuous by its absence in the majority of country properties and when one discovers a garden such as that of Yelki, it is indeed worthy of comment." The outbuildings of the estate included a large stone stables complex, where at one time, 20 Clydesdale working horses were housed; a barn, loft, iron-roofed shearing shed, iron and wood general implement shed, straw shelter shed for horses, cowshed and smithy. The property was chiefly used for crossbred wool and lamb production and through the use of exceptionally good farming methods, three sheep to the acre could be maintained even through the summer. Wheat was also grown and Yelki fields returned eight bags to the acre. The estate was divided up in the late 1980's. Yattalunga Estate at one time comprised an enormous area of land covering the major part of the South Para River and Tenafeate Creek. The building of the house, a thirty-room mansion, was begun in 1851 by Philip Butler, uncle of the Hon. Richard Butler, M.P. Building continued for a further three years due to a scarcity of labour caused by the Victorian Gold Rush. Six stone pillars on the lower balcony at the rear of the house, were never completed. The stone used for a major portion of the house was sandstone which was quarried near Humbug Scrub and carted to the site by bullock dray. The hand-tooled stone was originally white but has since weathered to a warm cream. The roof was tiled with imported Welsh slate and the columns supporting the front verandah are solid Huon pine. The house had a servery lift which raised meals from the kitchen downstairs, to the dining room upstairs. The 100 square residence featured finely carved oak furniture and fire-place mantels, cedar woodwork, and a series of arches, each of a different size and shape, in the main passageway. Original paintings and lithographs by famous Australian artists such as S. T. Gill and Hans Heysen at one time graced these walls. The Barritt family of Yattalunga, along with two other Adelaide businessmen sponsored Hans Heysens studies abroad. The home was approached by a sweeping circular driveway which enclosed a formal English garden. Gardens surrounded the house on all sides. Nearby was a stables complex containing a carriage room, loose boxes, stalls and feeder and a loft. For many years the residence was known as 'Butlers folly' because Mrs. Butler refused to live in "such an isolated wilderness". At the time it was built, it was considered one of the largest and most beautiful mansions outside of Adelaide. Mr. Grant of Messrs. Grant and Stokes leased the property and lived there for several years after Mr Butler's ownership; a Mr. W. B. Sells renting it subsequently for several years. Mr. Joseph Barritt of Lyndoch purchased Yattalunga in 1878. His sons, Frank and Herbert, inherited the property in 1881 and operated it in partnership until 1900, when Frank took over sole ownership. Frank Barritt's son, F. E. Barritt carried on from him. The property at one time extended from the outskirts of Gawler, almost to Para Wirra National Park and Humbug Scrub.

Conclusion


I have memories of being driven along the white, dusty road to One Tree Hill, with all its remnant bushland along the road verges. Each twist and turn opened up new vistas and surprises. Foxes, rabbits and the occasional possum could be seen scrambling away from the noise of the vehicle. It was comforting to know that we were in the country; the farm houses and town buildings seemed part of the overall landscape, friendly, secure and permanent. It had been this way for generations. It seemed to me that it would always be this way. However, over the years much of value has irretrievably been destroyed and the district once so rich in natural and built heritage runs the risk of losing its special uniqueness to become yet another characterless suburban conglomeration, no different to thousands of contemporary towns anywhere in the world. Of the buildings which feature in this book, some have been destroyed and others changed. A number of estates that had been in the same family for generations have been divided up and sold. The earth roads winding through natural heathland have been replaced with wide, straight bitumen highways with imported weeds and grasses either side, transforming that special distinctively Australian country atmosphere to an uninviting urban emptiness. We all enjoy the benefits of smooth, safe roads that are kind on our cars, but progress comes with a price. However, the mistakes of the past are being repeated less often now. Although there has to be progress and the improvement of services and amenities, there is now a more general awareness of what really makes a district more liveable and a growing band of people are prepared to roll up their sleeves and get these special projects off the ground. For instance, there have been some very effective roadside revegetation projects, landcare projects and town plantings, putting some character back into the landscape. Also, many landholders have planted trees along their fencelines, which should ensure that they are able to reach maturity without the interference of government instrumentality's. Some successful farmers and graziers still remain, although they are now a rare species also, which is a great loss. It is a real science these days to be able to make a living from the land without having to resort to selling it. These days most landholders have relatively small farms which they enjoy in their spare time while working in industry or services down on the plains and in the city. I suspect that as the years progress, we are getting more prosperous as a people with more leisure and more disposable income and we are becoming better educated too. The early settlers and those who came after them relied on the rich natural resources of this region to become prosperous. We rely on the industry and infrastructure that was built through the utilization of these precious resources. I guess we cant have our cake and eat it too. We still have much of value left to enjoy and manage for the future. I believe we should foster a pro-development approach where we create opportunities for our own prosperity and therefore for our childrens benefit and for their children. Jealously and religiously protecting our natural and built heritage can only assist us in prospering. We need to keep that which we have which is good and build on it and improve it and expand it, not remove it and replace it with things of lesser value. And we must not stand by and allow our natural heritage to slowly and imperceptibly be whittled away by natural attrition. We need to make sure that it is able to continually regenerate itself and preferably to expand its range. From my own community involvement I am happy to observe that most One Tree Hill residents feel the same way and are prepared to get behind their town and district and help it progress while still retaining its special rural character.

Footnote 1
Wallace, H. R. The ecology of the forests and woodlands of South Australia. D.J. Woolman Government Printer, South Australia, 1986, Chapter I.3 R. Boardman. 'The history and evolution of South Australia's forests and woodlands.' p. 31.

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Footnote 2
see appendix 2. Herbig family tree.

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Footnote 3
Wallace, H. R. The ecology of the forests and woodlands of South Australia. p. 31.

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Footnote 4
The illustration on page 1 is of a five foot specimen of Xanthorrhoea growing in Para Wirra National Park.

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Footnote 5
Dashorst, G. R. M. & Jessop, J.P. Plants of the Adelaide Plains & Hills. pg. 108

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Footnote 6
Strahan, R. The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. pg. 112

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Footnote 7
See also Appendix 3 'John Gardner of the "Melbourne Sun" in an article in the "Bunyip", Friday November 6,1953.' Last six sentences.

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Footnote 8
Put something here about Napoleon!!!? Link to willow tree extract etc.

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Footnote 9
see 'News Review' article. Appendix 4

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Footnote 10
see Appendix 5. John McDouall Stuart.

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Footnote 11
see Appendix 6. 'News Review' article.

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Footnote 12
see Appendix 3. John Gardner of the "Melbourne Sun" in an article in the "Bunyip", Friday November 6,1953. Paragraph 3.

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Appendix 1


The following is a small selection of plant species indigenous to this area. Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River Red Gum); E. fasciculosa (Pink Gum); E. goniocalyx (Long-leaved Box); E. leucoxylon (S.A. Blue Gum); E. odorata (Peppermint Box); E. oleosa (red mallee); Acacia ligulata (umbrella bush); A. myrtifolia (Myrtle wattle); A. paradoxa (Kangaroo thorn); A. pycnantha (Golden wattle); A. retinodes (Wirilda); A. acinacea (Round leaved wattle); A. calamifolia (Wallowa); A. continua (Thorn wattle); Allocasuarina muelleriana (Slaty sheoak); A. verticillata (Drooping sheoak); Astroloma conostephiodes (Flame Heath); Banksia marginata; Brunonia australis (Blue pincushion); Callistemon sieberi (River bottlebrush); Callitris preissii (Southern cypress pine); C. rhomboidea (Oyster Bay pine); Calytrix tetragona (Common fringe myrtle); Dampiera rosmarinifolia (Wild rosemary); Dianella revoluta (Black-Anther flax-lily); D. longifolia (Pale flax-lily); Goodenia blackiana; G. pinnatifida (Scrambled eggs); Gompholobium ecostatum (Dwarf wedge pea); Grevillea lavandulacea (Iavender grevillea); Hakea carinata; H. rostrata (Beaked hakea); H. rugosa (Dwarf hakea); Hardenbergia violacea (Native lilac); Isopogon ceratophyllus (Conebush); Ixodia achilleoides (Adelaide Hills daisy); Kennedia prostrata (Running postman); I.eptospermum sp. (Prickly tea tree); Pimelea curviflora (Curved riceflower); P. flava (Yellow riceflower); P. humilis (Common riceflower); P. linifolia (Slender riceflower); P. octophylla (Wooly riceflower); P. stricta (Gaunt riceflower); Pultenaea canaliculata (Coast bush pea); P. hispidula (Rusty bush pea); P. largiflorens (Twiggy bush pea); P. laxiflora (Loose flower bush pea); Scaevola albida (Small fruited fan-flower); Wahlenbergia gracilenta (Annual bluebell); W. stricta (Tall bluebell).

Appendix 2


Extract taken from 'Touring guide, Barossa Valley Towns.' http://www.tourism.sa.gov.au/touring_guide/bv/towns.htm#Tanunda Springton. Pop. 300. 63km North East of Adelaide. One of the gateway townships of the Barossa, Springton is where, for the traveller, the Barossa and Adelaide Hills meld and is where a new generation of vineyards are adding lustre to Australian wine and an identity to the district. Take a break to stroll its quietly gracious main street. Herbig Family Tree and Homestead Heritage Centre. Mount Pleasant to Angaston Road. A large, hollow red gum reputedly 500 years old with a diameter of seven metres at the base and 24 metres high, the tree was the first home of 27 year old German settler Friedrich Herbig and his 18 year old bride Caroline Rattey. The first of their 16 children were born in their tree home. As his family increased, Herbig built first a pine and pug cottage then a stone house. Caroline Herbig outlived him by 40 years leaving 51 grandchildren at her death in 1927. The heritage centre includes the original cottage, chaff barn and cellar. The buildings and displays provide a fascinating window to the past.

Appendix 3


John Gardner of the "Melbourne Sun" in an article in the "Bunyip", Friday November 6,1953. Founded by a Gloucestershire man come from fighting Napoleon early last century it has now merged with the equally quaint but larger hamlet of One Tree Hill. There is no train to the settlement. There is no pub when you get there. It is dominated by a walled churchyard with a ruined chapel, a century old school - and the legend. About 20 miles along the 2000 mile long Adelaide to Darwin highway which splits Australia, you leave the bitumen and climb up a white bumpy road for about three miles. You turn and you leave the new world for the old - behind you in fields of wheat and fat red oranges are being worked some of the Empires great industries and hush-hush experiments, which are better not talked about. Ahead turn back the clock and see something of the warp and the woof of which our fathers made this country. In the mossy, stone walled churchyard at the top of the hill is the tombstone of the young English weaver, who with a cricket playing, land owning parson had virtually founded the district. Moses Bendle Garlick. Born September 1784. Died October 1859. "He served during the whole of the Peninsular Campaign and was present in six general actions." And thus with fellow settlers he rests in the acre he gave from the square mile he owned. The school master hoeing his cabbage patch behind the century old school told me he was taking the kids along to clean the pillared tombstone and weathered inscription. That, he thought would be a good lesson in local history. They were keen on Uley's history and had heard all about the ghost and why the crossroads was always known as Ghost Corner ..... of the poor wayfarers who had seen the thing. When '1851' was carved over the gable of the local chapel, it was used by all denominations, then by the Baptists and by the bearded Munno Para East Council who used to argue by lamplight amid the tombstones. Today it is empty. The door flaps open and birds perch in the rafters. But the bit of Gloucestershire that is in the graveyard is still in use. They told me about the English mother who came out, planted a stick of willow from Napoleons grave on the meadow plot in which her son rested, of how it grew into a fine tree, and of the fence they built around it. And of the reputation of indignant, frock-coated Uleybury men who marched into Baptist headquarters in Adelaide to complain that parson Buttfield was playing cricket too much. Moss grows on the weathered walls of the baptismal well where parson Buttfield used to duck his adherants after leading them to the ample stone steps. Roofless, windowless old homes stare at you along Smith Creek and unexpectedly from behind clumps of trees and little hills. There was a water wheel alongside one of the old buildings a few years ago, a relic of the days when they ground their own flour in these self-sufficient settlements and wheat and fruit were not enough on the land which has come, with top dressing and pastures, to be some of the best in Australia for sheep. A state premier, Sir Richard Butler, was born here in the villages hey-day and another comes from just over the neighbouring hills. Although the villagers have dispersed and the holdings are so much bigger there is still a pride, a tradition. Todays locals talk about so-and-so who "came here after fighting Napoleon." This is the stuff on which great nations have built. I knocked at a door and was. shown to the study of a sturdy homestead at the end of a tree lined drive. "Stranger, eh" queried a clean, erect old gentleman. He looked like a Kentucky planter. I murmured something about local history and was put in an armchair, given Scotch Whiskey, coffee, biscuits and a cigarette. I had come to the right place. My host was the village's G.O.M., 83 year old Frank L. Ifould, a grazier, born and reared within sight of the churchyard. His father knew the original pioneers. He checked facts for me and supplied fresh material about Uleybury. "Ghosts" he said, uncorking a bottle of King George he fished from a cedar cupboard "I can tell you about those headless horses." "My old dad used to give one of his vineyard workers a bottle of wine a day for himself, but this wasn't enough on the days dad went to town and the worker used to leave here pretty full sometimes." "A friend of ours dressed up in big white sheets, jumped out and frightened hell out of this fellow at the crossroads one night. The tippler went for his life, spreading a story of a giant ghost which eventually grew into a coach with headless horses. From that day to this, sir, the crossroads out there has been known as Ghost Corner." So in 1953, a ghost, born of a wine bottle last century was laid with a drop of Scotch.

Appendix 4


History blasted: vandal war ends. 'The Salisbury, Elizabeth, Gawler and Munno Para News Review' 1981 A historic chapel at One Tree Hill has been demolished by explosives because it could not be protected against vandals. The Uley Chapel on Uley Road, which connects Smithfield and the hills north of One Tree Hill, was built by Moses Bendle Garlick in 185l. Vandals have gutted the building, sprayed it with graffiti and obscenities, gouged holes in walls and desecrated graves and head stones in the chapel cemetery. Munno Para District Council spent about $5000 fencing and floodlighting the chapel and graves in an unsuccessful attempt to stop the vandalism. A firm of mining and demolition engineers, Civil and Industrial Group Services Pty, Ltd., was contracted by the council to destroy the church at the weekend. Mr. R. G. Hart, said the demolition work had been a professional contract, but none of those involved had enjoyed it. The firm had taken four hours to drill the church, load the holes with explosives, then blast the building. "It's not the sort of thing we like to go around and do," Mr. Hart said. "It's part of our heritage and yet we had to go and do it as a moral obligation to the families of those buried there. "Unruly elements had been having their screaming parties, writing words you wouldn't dream about, desecrating the graveyard completely, smashing all the headstones and writing obscenities everywhere." "I can't. see how people could possibly get any satisfaction from that. Who the hell are we dealing with?" The Munno Para district clerk, Dr. D. K. Wormald said the council would remove the ruins, landscape the area and preserve graves in the cemetery beside it. The stone from the demolished chapel would be used to build a fence around the area. "We were very sorry really we had to do it but in the end we were faced with no alternative," Mr. Wormald said. The chapel building was once the Munno Para Rifle Brigade's headquarters and for 40 years was the district council chamber. It closed as a church in 1881. The cemetery contains the graves of district pioneer families. The council is seeking information from the families of those buried in the cemetery to help with identification and restoration of the headstones.

Appendix 5


John McDouall Stuart Born: England 1815 Died 1866 Explorer and Surveyor Stuart migrated to South Australia in 1839 and soon after joined C. Sturt's expedition to Central Australia in 1844. After working as a surveyor 1846-58 he led a number of expeditions through the colony and eventually was the first to cross the continent from the south to the Indian Ocean. in 1862. His first attempt at the crossing from south to north in 1861, was foiled by scurvy and attacks by aboriginals. Only 400 miles from his destination, he was forced to turn back. He returned home and then made a repeat journey in the same year, finally arriving at the coast near the present city of Darwin.

Appendix 6


Front page article 'The Salisbury, Elizabeth, Gawler and Munno Para News Review' April 27, 1979. Public invited to attend re-opening by former headmaster on Sunday. Century old school is now a museum. By Michael Smithson. The public will see a wealth of exhibits when Uleybury School Museum re-opens its doors this Sunday, April 29 at 2 p.m. A dedicated society has collected articles and restored the landmark which was built in l856 to cater for the children of Uleybury and One Tree Hill. The school museum, believed to be the first of its kind in S.A. will be re-opened by former master Mr. Hedley James Lang. Mr. Lang is one of the many people to contribute items to the school museum. "Thanks must go to the people who have contributed articles for the display," Uleybury School Museum Society president Mr. J.A. Hill said. "We received great help from Mr. Lang who contributed more than 100 items, the Blair Athol Primary School and Gawler Primary School." "The society hopes to see many former pupils at the re-opening and many other interested persons." Mr. Hill heads the society which formed many years back, disbanded and reformed about a year ago. "We received considerable assistance from Munno Para Council which owns the land." he said. "Council helped us secure a $70,000 SURS grant to renovate the old place, and it has handed over the tenancy to the committee." "Munno Para Council has been very good to us. It has donated $6,500 for renovation." Another of the six member committee is Mr. Hill's l8 year-old son Steven who is designer and curator of the old premises. Steven, a local artist, has poured his talents into presenting the school museum as it would have been. "We want school children to visit the place and see what things were like in the old days", Steven explained. "It is also designed to re-educate the older people who remember the place as it was." The school museum will be open Sunday afternoons and can be viewed by schools during the week by appointment. On re-opening day, there will be refreshments and home made biscuits provided. For details contact Steven Hill on...

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