Lapita Pottery Small Fijian outrigger from Kabara, Suva Lapita pottery
Lapita pottery has long been held as the key to Polynesian colonization of the Eastern Pacific, despite there being no hard evidence to prove it. In fact the deeper one delves into the archaeology, chronology and gene trees of the Pacific one finds that there is no connection whatsoever between Polynesian and Lapita culture. The following article outlines many of these discrepancies. In fact it is quite embarrassing how poorly the scientists have interpreted the facts.
Lapita pottery is a finely decorated (dentate stamped) coil built, low fired pottery commonly found in archaeological sites in the Western Pacific. The earliest Lapita sites are in the Bismark Archipelago and are dated at 3,900 years BP. The Lapita culture does not predate the arrival of Melanesians, who have lived in New Guinea and it's surrounding Islands for over 40,000 years. Lapita pottery is commonly found in coastal locations on the Islands of New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomons, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. The Lapita people are believed to have spread eastwards and colonized Fiji, Samoa and Tonga ~3,500 years ago which predates the arrival of the Polynesian people in the Pacific by 1,300 years. Lapita pottery is common on most Melanesian islands and is often found associated with Melanesian deposits, but is not found amongst any Eastern Polynesian archaeological deposits in Hawai'i, Rapa Nui, Aoteoroa, Tahiti, Tuamotus, Raiatea, Raivavae or Rarotonga or any other Eastern Polynesian Islands. The archaeological assemblage on Melanesian Islands shows a gradual progression of design styles which merged with classic Melanesian designs such as Mangassi and Naviti styles, marking the end of the Lapita culture in the archaeological record at about 420BC (Matthew Spriggs " The Lapita Cultural Complex"). This was over 400 years before Polynesians arrived in Western Polynesia (Samoa and Tonga).
According to geneticists, Polynesian expansion in the Pacific was rapid. Genetics clearly shows that the pure strain of Eastern Polynesian genes began expanding 2,200 years ago in isolation from all other Pacific cultures, outlined by Bing Su and Mark Stoneking in Polynesian Y Chromozome. Their research also shows that Polynesians finally made contact with Melanesians merely 1,000 years ago. As you will see from evidence presented here, the Lapita people lived at a different time to Polynesians, in a different geographical area and were physically, genetically and culturally different to Polynesians.
Lapita the name
Lapita pottery has been misunderstood from the day it was discovered when an archaeologist picked up a piece of pottery from the bottom of his pit. Some natives arriving on the scene exclaimed "Xaapeta!" Which means "He dug a pit!" Unfortunately the scientist thought the natives were getting excited about the piece of rubble he was holding in his hand and decided that the exclamation "Xaapeta" was the name of the culture the pottery represented. Unfortunately he misheard them and decided the word said was Lapita, and through his "scientific" paper, the Lapita name has stuck.
Fundamental differences between Lapita and Polynesian Culture
The most basic difference between the Lapita and Polynesian culture is; "Ceramics were not manufactured by Polynesian societies at any time in East Polynesian prehistory. Therefore trying to connect Lapita and plainware pottery with Polynesians is illogical.” (Anita Smith in; An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002). Polynesians also had a totally different tool kit. Lapita potters used bows and arrows, spears and nets to catch fish. They did not use fishhooks or harpoon heads, whereas the Polynesian fishing kit consisted of: two piece fishing hook, trolling lure and harpoon head which interestingly is very similar to Haida-gwaii artefacts of Canada. Other items unique to Eastern Polynesia and absent in the Lapita cultural complex identified by Anita Smith are the; two piece fishhook, trolling lure, harpoon head, whale tooth pendant, reel ornament, pearl shell breastplate and tattooing needle. These seven items are all commonly found at Polynesian sites but were not found at any Lapita, plainware or Melanesian sites. She also identified 5 artefacts (shell beads, shell net sinker, shell armband/ring, shell adze and polishing/grinding stone) that were not found at any Polynesian sites. The following table clearly shows a complete absence of these key Polynesian artefacts from all Melanesian sites (highlighted in red).
This Table from Anita Smiths 'An archaeology of west Polynesian prehistory' shows quite clearly the complete absence of some key Polynesian artifacts from all Lapita and Plainware sites. Hardly compelling evidence of a connection between the two cultures.
Other Polynesian artefacts absent in the Lapita culture are the; slingshot, tanged adze, fishhook pendant, phallic and vagina shaped pestles, catamaran, taniwha and bottle gourd . The list of differences goes on….
The big man or richest, most charismatic man was head of the village in Melanesia, wheras Polynesian society was based around a hereditary lineage of chiefs. Lapita used shells for money, whereas Polynesians used woven mats for payment - similar to the Kwakuitl who used rugs for payment.
1. Similarity in stoneworking technique and design of these grinders from coastal Canada (Haida Gwai'i) and Eastern Polynesia.
From Thor Heyerdahl's book; American Indians in the Pacific
2. Maldive money cowries - ancient currency of the sea traders, including the Lapita people. Photo; Thor Heyerdahl; Maldive Mystery.
Compare this with NW coast and Polynesian practice of the use of rugs and mats for currency.
Preparations for a Tongan (Polynesian) wedding ceremony, showing the pile of mats being gifted.
The custom of using mats or rugs for currency is shared with the Haida, Kwakuitl and Tlingit of Canada and Alaska,
but not with Lapita people who used cowrie shells for currency - as did the Harappa, Maldive and Tamil Nadu cultures.
Money cowries suspected to come from the Maldives have even been found at the Isle Royale Copper mine in Michigan, suggesting that the Lapita people may have been a branch of a much larger global sea trade culture who used money cowries for currency - not rugs.
Note in the above picture, the presence of Melanesian genes (frizzy hair) in Polynesian Tonga, due to cultural contact with Fiji during the last 1,000 years.
Interestingly, Whiti - the Polynesian pronounciation of Fiji, means crossover, or changeover. Their awareness of this change from
Polynesian to Melanesian society between Samoa/Tonga and Fiji is preserved in the name. During the last 1,000 years this boundary has clearly become blurred.
Photo; Loisette Marsh.
On many occasions there have been articles that have pointed out that Polynesians are genetically and physically different to Lapita people, yet this information continues to be ignored. From the article WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE? Human skeletal remains from the Pacific region, by Archaeologist Nicola Van Dijk. The following diagram based on a cluster analysis of mandibular shapes highlighting the complete absence of a connection between Polynesian and Lapita people.
Van Dijk says;"Polynesians actually show more differences than similarities, and it is these differences we should concentrate on. It appears fairly clear that the Lapita people were quite phenotypically distinct (Pietrusewsky 1989, Katayama 1990) from what we idientify as Polynesian today." Pietrusewsky notes; "Skeletal and dental features which clearly differentiate the Lapita remains from other Pacific groups include wide low mandible shapes, small teeth and slender long limb bones."
Van Dijk concludes; In a cluster analysis based on the results of mandibular measurements the Lapita remains were isolated and furthest removed from Polynesians.
The wide jaw and slender long limb bones are characteristics of the 6-7ft tall, red haired Caucasians whose skeletons have been found in the Nevada desert, South America and caves in New Zealand. The Easter Islanders and some families from Sardinia and Sicily also exhibit the distinctive features of the ancient red haired seafarers.
It should be pointed out that the wide low jaw is found in some Polynesian people, but it is always associated with the most Caucasian looking individuals. The characteristic 9 based pair deletion of Polynesians is unlikely to be found amongst the following individuals.
Is Lapita Polynesian, Melanesian or ....... ?
Many articles written on Pacific culture have assumed without question that the Lapita pottery people were Polynesians, resulting in a circular argument asserting that archaeological relics of the Lapita pottery culture in the Western Pacifc was clear evidence that Polynesians passed through island Melanesia into the Central Pacific. To come to this conclusion, one must ignore the fact that; Polynesians never made pottery, never used shell money and they never buried their dead in urns - three key characteristics of the lapita culture. The Lapita culture was most certainly part of the Western Pacific story, and relics of this society can still be found there, where Lapita style pottery and shell money were still used in Melanesia until recent times. (Patrick Kirch, Prehistoric Exchange in Western Melanesia). The archaeological record shows that there is no doubt that Lapita people co-habited with the Melanesians, not only in the archaeological tool kit of both cultures, but studies of a Lapita skeleton named 'Mana Man' found in Moturiki, Fiji shows that his skeleton is distinctly Melanesian. Robert Keith-Reid states; "The tentative conclusion was that the Lapita style pottery was carried to Moturiki from the Melanesian Santa Cruz/Reef Islands, 1,000km from Moturiki. Mana Man is estimated to have been buried between 1000 B.C. and 800 B.C. and was the second Lapita-age skeleton discovered in the Pacific Islands."
Mana man, Moturiki
John E Tyrrell and Schechter have found a culture in New Guinea on the Sepik coastline near Aitape that continues the traditional Lapita designs to this day. These designs represent turtles and go hand in hand with a creation myth whereby they believe a turtle became the first island for man and woman. This myth parallels many Native American myths that also assert that the turtle created the first land for man and woman. In fact North America is known by many Native American nations as Turtle Island. Melanesian type skulls found in Panama as well as the distinctly African looking Olmec heads of the Yucatan, suggests that people similar in appearance to Melanesians may have arrived from America with the turtle creation myth during Olmec sea trade 3-4,000 years ago. Another possibility is that this myth may also have arrived when Malaria - Plasmodium vivax arrived in Melanesia 10,000 years ago. This is also the time of the most rapid rises in sealevel at the end of the last Ice Age, which caused a massive dislocation of coastal populations globally. As flooding and the loss of land is the basis of the turtle myth, this is the most logical scenario. The other possibility is that Native American red heads arrived in Island Melanesia with the turtle creation myth. In fact the answer may be; "all of the above".
Ancestral figures who were tall with pale skin and red hair are often mentioned in Native American as well as Pacific legends. (see Migrations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert Islands by Rosemary Grimble). One Kiribati legend describes eels (Serpents?) coming ashore who turned into red haired men when they swam ashore. Another legend (Bue the Ancestor) describes one of these red men copulating with a woman who was bathing in the shallows at sunrise. The legend describes the "Sun" entering her loins, suggesting a child of the sun was born to her. When this child grew up, he set sail to the East (America) to look for his ancestors.
As Maori, Marquesan and Rapa Nui legends all speak of some of their ancestors arriving from the East - not from Melanesia. I find it difficult to connect these ancient Caucasian features with the Lapita people. They may have come from the same group of seafarers ~4,000 years ago, and as their mobility was not restricted by oceanic distance, the possibility that descendants of these people entered the Pacific from opposite sides at different times is not a difficult concept to grasp.
During the history of these people, they have been called a number of names; the Maurya of India, the Mauri of Africa, the Mauli of Chile, the Maori of New Zealand and the Moors of Spain. Another common name given to these people are the Berbers. In Africa today descendants of these people call themselves the Amazigh or 'Free Men' their language is Tamazight. In America, the Alligewi people of the Mississippi Mound Building culture are also known as "The Free Men" - their language is Tallegwi. The common prefix T, denoting 'language', is no coincidence. These people are part of the Hokan language group of America, all of which are believed to be descendants of the Berbers.
The Urekehu - or red heads amongst the Maori are believed to have come from a hot dry land to the East. In fact the people of Lake Titicaca are called the Uros who live on floating reed beds in the lake. Right through America variations of this Ur name is widespread. The people of Uruguay, the Iroquois of North America and the Yurok of California. All these people are river trading people, skilled in the use of boats.
The recent study by Johnathon Friedlaender et al, titled THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PACIFIC ISLANDERS shows that Polynesians have no genetic relationship to the genetically diverse group collectively called Melanesians, but instead show strong connection to Native Taiwanese genes. This once again confirms that Polynesians could not have lived in Melanesia and therefore could not have been the Lapita people whose archaeological remains show a clear association with Melanesians for over 1,500 years. Johnathon Friedlaender makes it quite clear that Polynesians developed in isolation from the Melanesians.
Lapita skull compared to the classic long skull of Nefertiti and another Egyptian skull belived to be a female called Bakt.
This skull hints at the amount of cross cultural interaction between these people - she has a classic Polynesian rocker jaw!
Geneticist Lisa Matissoo-Smith successfully extracted DNA from the teeth of the Teouma skeletons, found in Lapita burial urns, some of which were sitting in the lotus position. She found that they did not contain any Polynesian or East Asian genes. To date she has not yet determined whether the DNA is Melanesian or from a forgotten civilization of Caucasian seafarers.
Lisa Matissoo-Smith in her interview on TV NZ (Tagata Pasifika Lapita special 3 2005) said; "We were able to look to see whether the individual possessed a particular mutation that we see at a very high frequency in Polynesians. It is a 9based pair mutation of Mitichondrial DNA and we found that the Teouma material - the first samples that we analysed did not have that mutation, so they did not look like 98% of the people we see living in Polynesia today."
Lisa promised a paper regarding this information would be published in 2007. This has not happened, she has been advised to pass the study on to a laboratory in America ( ....do I smell a rat??). Similar results to hers were ignored from a different team of geneticists in 1993. DNA Goes Missing in the Polynesian Triangle. The reason for also quietly sweeping this information under the carpet remains to be seen.
Further back in time - in 1989, another geneticist (Susan Serjeantson) brought to the attention of scientists the differences between Eastern Polynesians and the people of the Western Pacific. Once again this information was quietly ignored; S.W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7. SW Serjeantson comments with regard to the assumed Lapita/Polynesian connection; "It seems quite implausible that a group supposedly evolving within Melanesia could have acquired, by chance, so many non-Melanesian genes! The following genes set them apart: Polynesians lack HLA-B27 , wheras it is common amongst Melanesians. HLA-Bw48 is commonly found in Polynesian populations, but occurs only sporadically in Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of HLA-Bw48 is that of the North American Indians or more specifically the Tlingit (Prince of Wales Island). HLA-B13, B18 and B27 are commonly found throughout Melanesia. These antigens are sporadic in Western Polynesia and are essentially absent from the populations of Eastern Polynesia. HLA-A11 and B40 are significantly associated with each other in Melanesia, but are not linked in Polynesian Populations, HLA-A11 is linked to HLA-Bw48 in Polynesia, indicating a different source of origin. Therefore HLA data cannot support the theory of Polynesian evolution within Melanesia."
When genetically analysing the Polynesian outliers such as Ouvea (of New Caledonia), the Trobriands and Rotuma, it was hoped that these people would display more ancient Polynesian genes, indicating these islands were veritable stepping stones into the Central Pacific. Unfortunately geneticists found that these people separated from the main Polynesian population of Eastern Polynesia less than 1,000 years ago. This was in complete agreement to the legends of these people which stated that their arrival was from Eastern Polynesia about 1,000 years ago. Some legends described escape from war and family squabbles, others described storm drift survival voyages (Peter Buck - Vikings of the Sunrise). It was not just Polynesians who migrated westward. Many Torres Strait people (islands between New Guinea and Australia) trace their history back to the Melanesians of Fiji.
Geneticists Bing Su and Mark Stoneking and Susan Serjeantson (“The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7) all agree that admixture with Melanesians has only occurred within the last 1,000 years and makes it completely untenable for Polynesians to have lived amongst Melanesians, therefore the Lapita people who by the archaeological evidence, lived amongst the Melanesians for over 1,500 years (1,900BC to 400BC) cannot by any stretch of the imagination, be the ancestors of the Polynesians.
Amongst the Archaeologists, which can be given credit for bringing to ones attention the discrepancies in the Lapita/Polynesian misconception are;
“Although ceramics have been used as the primary material culture correlate for cultural change in West Polynesia, they are perhaps least suited to identifying Ancestral Polynesians in the archaeological record. Ceramics were not manufactured by Polynesian societies at any time in East Polynesian prehistory. Therefore trying to connect Lapita and plainware pottery with Polynesians is illogical.”
The following excerpt indicates that Lapita did originate in the heart of Melanesia (albeit quite suddenly without any formative phase, suggesting the arrival by sea of some new people with pottery making skills).
Matthew Spriggs, The Lapita Cultural complex, 1985 "The earliest Lapita pottery found to date is from Elouae in the St Matthais Group, north of New Ireland . The date of 1900 BC (3,900 years ago), comes from a single hearth feature associated with Lapita materials. The Elouae site contained obsidian both from the Admiralties 300 km to the east, and Talasea 430km to the south. Requiring a significant sea voyage."
This indicates that the Lapita potters were competent sailors and were connected to an Obsidian trading network. Other researchers have identified Melanesian obsidian in Borneo, suggestng this trade network encompassed S.E. Asia and beyond.
Matthew Spriggs states; "The possibility of cultural continuity between Lapita Potters and Melanesians has not been given the consideration it deserves. In most sites there was an overlap of styles with no stratigraphic separation discernible Continuity is found in pottery temper, importation of obsidian and in non ceramic artefacts".
"The earliest reliable dates for Lapita outside the Bismarks all occur later than 1500 BC, With most Lapita sites in Vanuatu and the Solomons having a date around 900 BC, With production ceasing around 0BC. Contemporary with the final phases of Lapita and continuing long afterwards in some areas we find the incised and relief pottery or Mangaasi style widespread in Melanesia. In Watom, Mangaasi pottery is found with lapita pottery, made from the same clay and dating to 420 BC".
As there is no genetic link between Melanesians and Polynesians, there is no way Polynesians shared their clay with the Melanesians for over 1,500 years without finding themselves in bed with each other. As Lapita pottery is found amongst other distinctly Melanesian styles of pottery, made of the same clay, it seems that either; the Lapita culture was Melanesian; or the Lapita people lived amongst the Melanesians and contributed significantly to Melanesian society.
The above observations by Spriggs clearly indicates that Lapita had its origins within the Bismark Archipelago, the heart of Melanesia, spread throughout Melanesia, but then slowly gave way to other styles of pottery as other designs became more fashionable, with Lapita ceasing production before Polynesians even entered the Pacific!
T.Hunt, P. Kirch; The Evolution of Island Societies “In Fiji about 0 BC there is a change from Lapitoid plain ware to paddle impressed ceramics of the Navatu phase”. On the basis of his analysis of the Yanuca site, he argues for “ continuity in western Fiji between Lapita and the subsequent Navatu phase .” Once again confirming a solid connection between Lapita and Melanesian culture.
Anita Smith in; An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002 - when comparing Lapita with plainware ceramics in Polynesia: - “There do not appear to be new or different kinds of evidence associated with plainware ceramics, only the disappearance of a minor component of material culture and faunal assemblages is apparent. There is continuity in most aspects of the archaeological record that appears to mimic post Lapita sequences of Fiji and island Melanesia.”
Therefore plainware ceramics in Samoa appears to be a simplification of the Lapita cultural complex caused by isolation from the parent Lapita/Melanesian culture.
Anita Smith continues; "Plainware pottery is found on many Polynesian islands and was thought to be a significant player in the transformation of Lapita society into a Polynesian cultural complex. Unfortunately no classical Polynesian artifacts have been found within this plainware assemblage."
Archaeological evidence indicates that plainware pottery ceases abruptly in Samoa around 0BC, being replaced by classic Polynesian cultural complex. This clearly indicates a change in ownership of the islands, from the waning Lapita/Melanesian settlers to a culture that used gourds, 2 piece fishhooks, trolling lures, harpoons, tattooing needles, tanged adzes and elaborately ground stone pestles.
Janet M Davidson in her archaeological digs on Samoa; found an "800 year gap between the end of the Lapita habitation (1330 BC - 700 BC) and the beginning of Polynesian habitation of the islands (100 - 300 AD)".
Anita Smith found a similar break in habitation on many of the islands she studied, clearly separating Lapita culture from Polynesian habitation of the islands.
These two graphs from Anita Smiths 'An archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory' shows a definite break in occupation on many Pacific islands between the end of Lapita and the beginning of Polynesian occupation. As there are significant gaps between the periods of habitation, I would suggest natural disasters such as Typhoons or Ttsunamis, rather than wars may have been responsible for the desertion of many of these islands. As the Lapita people were essentially seafaring coastal dwellers, often living in stilt houses above the water, their numbers would have been severely depleted if a Tsunami swept across the Pacific.
The above information has been obtained scientifically by scientists and clearly shows Polynesians had nothing to do with Lapita, yet media releases from the scientific community still assert that the Polynesians gradually evolved out of the Lapita people in Melanesia. This is typified by the March 2008 National Geographic Magazine. How can scientists continue to sweep all the above information under the carpet and carry on with their contradictory stories of nonsense and get away with it? I am sure most scientists are well intentioned, but there seems to be some that are deliberately perverting the search for the truth either for their own selfish reasons or because they have been instructed to do so by people with political agendas.
Alternative Possibility for a Polynesian Homeland
For the past 100 years, scientists have been trying to establish the route which Polynesians used to enter the Central Pacific, which according to geneticists such as Kayser, Bing Su and Mark Stoneking, their time of arrival was about 2,200 years ago into an isolated Pacific archepelago where rapid population expansion occurred, (possibly Hawai'i - Polynesians do assert that their homeland was Hawai'i - maybe we should have listened to them in the first place). These geneticists also determined that Polynesians departed from East Asia (Taiwan, Japan and China) about 6,000 years ago, before Mongoloid expansion in East Asia 5,000 years ago. Linguists also confirm that the time of separation of the Polynesian language from East Asia was about 6,000 years ago.
The absence of similarities between Polynesian and Indonesian/Phillippine/Micronesian/Melanesian genes do not suggest that any of these island Archipelagos were interim homelands for Polynesians during this time. Their wherabouts for 3,800 years is therefore a mystery, unless of course the West Coast of America is considered as their interim homeland. There is a great deal of cultural, artefact and genetic evidence that seems to suggest that this possibility has not been given the consideration it deserves. For example; Polynesians used calabashes made from a Native American species of Gourd instead of pottery; they used mats for trade exchange - similar to native tribes of the Canadian coast; they made polished tanged adzes, stone pounders, two piece fish hooks and harpoon heads - none of which have ever been found at Lapita sites, but instead are characteristic of cultures along the West Coast of Canada and North America. It is no coincidence that the people of New Zealand and Coastal Canada share the same unusual custom of rubbing noses together as a form of greeting. Despite this, Canada has never been seriously considered as an interim homeland for Polynesians after leaving Taiwan 6,000 years ago. The map below shows the mtDNA of the Pacific region. It appears that Polynesian females have more in common with Native Americans than any other group on the Pacific rim.
Notice the dominance of red mt DNA (Haplogroup B) in Polynesian and American genes. The arrival of Haplogroup B on the West coast of America was 6-8,000 years ago, but in Polynesia it was only 2,200 years ago, suggesting the direction of colonization. This, along with the fact that HLA Bw48 is unique only to Polynesia and NW Canada does seem to suggest a point of origin in America. Furthermore A11 is associated with Bw48 in Polynesians but not in America, therefore it has been picked up from other Pacific populations since their departure from the NW Canada population. This clearly shows that the colonization of Polynesia was from America, not the reverse as some anthropologists have suggested.
In Bryan Sykes book; "Seven Daughters of Eve" he named Haplogroup B, the clan of Ina. He coined this name from the Polynesian moon Goddess "Ina" also known as Sina in Samoa and Hina in Tahiti/Hawai'i. Wahine, the word for female is also derived from the word Hina. Interestingly Inana is also the name for the Mesopotamian moon goddess and Sina is the name of the Sumerian moon goddess depicted on artefacts from over10,000 years ago, suggesting that the persistence of culture is much more than anyone ever imagined.
Scientists still cling to a few threads of circumstantial evidence which connect the Lapita and Polynesian cultures despite the fact that there is not one shred of hard evidence that connects the two cultures. There have been a plethora of papers written on Melanesia and Western Polynesia, while Eastern Polynesia and coastal America has been almost deliberately ignored. Researchers who have attempted to establish connections between Polynesia and America have been shunned and ridiculed, often having their funding withdrawn. Without the funding, comprehensive studies cannot be undertaken, and so, we are kept in the dark through insufficient and biased research based on old dogmas. This is not the way of true science, it is the way of egotistical professors trying to uphold their work in the light of new findings that clearly show that some of the fundamental assumptions that their lifetime's work was based on, is false.
Here are some examples of what these scientists have come up with when trying to understand the colonization of the Pacific, by excluding the possibly that the West coast of America was the stepping stone they were all looking for.
The Slow Train
The slow train theory was used to explain that Polynesians left Taiwan about 6000 years ago and it assumed they took a slow trip through Melanesia making Lapita pottery before entering the Eastern Pacific.
These scientists assumed that Lapita pottery was left by Polynesians despite no pottery ever being found amongst Polynesian artefacts. Furthermore, Polynesians are genetically distant from Melanesians (THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PACIFIC ISLANDERS)- their most recent common ancestor was over 11,500 years ago, since then they have evolved quite separately (Polynesian Y chromozome). Therefore it is impossible for Polynesians to have been making pottery on Melanesian islands for over 1,500 years. The major cultural differences between Melanesians and Polynesians have always been a point of contention with the slow train theory. Melanesians have what is called a 'Big Man' society (The Big Man society claims the richest most charismatic man as their chief). This is completely unrelated to the Polynesian socio-political system who have a class based society and follow a hereditary lineage of Kings and Queens. The incredible depth of Polynesian ancestry is best preserved in Hawai'i, where the main ancestral (Royal) family can be traced back 16,000 years to Lailai (possibly Lili of ancient Sumerian legend). The stark physical differences of Melanesians with their dark skin and frizzy hair when compared to Polynesian golden skin and straight hair casts serious doubt on the Slow Train theory.
The Express Train
This backflip theory, suggested a rapid movement through Melanesia and Micronesia in order to answer the lack of similarities between Polynesians, Micronesians and Melanesians.
These scientists have fruitlessly searched for a homeland back in S.E. Asia between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago.
This theory was seriously flawed as Polynesians showed no evidence of contact with;
Chinese genes (Chinese expansion began from the Hwang Ho river 5,000 years ago)
Shovel shaped incisor gene of S.E. Asia
The Bronze Age
The Iron Age
The Three I's
The three I's model sounded nice. It stood for integrate, innovate and isolate and suggested that Polynesian society spontaneously emerged out of a few Melanesian individuals who became isolated from their culture and then creatively reinvented their society (from a "Big Man" society to a royal hereditary caste society), casting off their pottery making skills and frizzy hair.
The three I's appears to be a great little teaching tool, describing various aspects of cultural sharing and reinvention of society, but a long way from the reality of the Polynesian story.
As said before, genetics shows that first contact between Polynesians and Melanesians was less than 1,000 years ago, (Polynesian Y chromozome) making a nonsense of the possibility of a genesis of Polynesian culture from Melanesian society.
The Entangled Bank
This model epitomises the complete confusion that exists in the academic world with regard to the issue of trying to connect Lapita archaeology with Polynesian prehistory. It gives up trying to understand the Polynesian homeland issue and tries to portray a complex mixing of cultures, with chance isolation of a rare mix of genes producing the Polynesian people as we know them today. I find the line of thought in this argument insulting, as it belittles the proud origins of the Polynesian people.
The Edge of the Unknowable
This paper takes the cake. It was basicly an admission that none of the above theories made any sense at all.
It seems that the scientists putting forward the above five theories are more interested in semantics than in a genuine interest in Polynesian culture and their history. Furthermore most of the work done by scientists represented by the above theories, was conducted in Melanesia and along the western boundary of Polynesia without ever visiting Eastern Polynesia. Would you call a person who studied the history of Turkey to be an authority on English history? I think not.
It appears none of these theorists ever considered comparing their results to the history held by the Polynesians themselves. From my research, the genetic evidence concurs very accurately with Polynesian stories of origin. Native histories cannot be 'conveniently' passed off as mere folklore anymore. I feel a sense of urgency to collate these stories and compare them to their genetic origins before all is lost. Village elders are going to the grave with untold information and genetic purity is also being rapidly diluted with the ease of travel today. It is both these sources of information that hold the key to the complexity of Polynesian history.
So lets give the people of the Pacific some respect and start with a piece of their history.
Polynesian Legends compared to Genetics
The following story of trade between Fiji and Samoa depicts the moment of first contact between Melanesia and Polynesia ~1,000 years ago, opening the gates for Asian plants and animals to enter Polynesia.
From 'Vikings of the Sunrise' by Sir Peter Buck,
"A Samoan legend tells of first contact with the Fijians; A Samoan voyager visited Fiji and was feasted on pork. He naturally desired to take pigs back with him to his own country. The Fijians, however, refused to allow any live pigs to leave their shores, but they raised no objection to dead pigs being taken as food for the voyage. The Samoans thereupon procured two very large pigs, which they killed and dressed. Unknown to their hosts, they stole some young ones and concealed them in the abdominal cavities of the dressed animals which they covered with leaves. Carrying the dead pigs on poles, they successfully eluded the vigilance of the Fijian "customs officers", and so pigs were introduced to Samoa."
Genetics shows that Polynesians first began mixing with Melanesians 1,000 years ago (Bing Su Polynesian Y chromozome) and (Susan Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7) confirming the truth in the above story.
This legend shows quite clearly that Samoans did not expand out from Fiji with their pigs, dogs and chickens as is often presumed. The presence of S.E. Asian plants and animals in Polynesia has often been used as proof that Polynesians expanded out from S.E. Asia, but this is not the case, it merely indicates that Polynesians traded with people who had expanded out from S.E. Asia in more ancient times - that is the Fijians, who arrived on their islands 3,500 years ago possibly alongside the Lapita people. A closer look at the archaeology of Eastern Polynesia shows quite clearly that pigs, dogs and chickens were absent from the archaeological assemblages of all early Eastern Polynesian sites.
Only in recent times has there been diffusion of culture between Polynesia and Melanesia, most apparent in Tonga and the Lau group of Fiji. In the Lau group, they make Samoan style round ended houses. King Thakambou, at the time of Captain Cook, was the first Polynesian style chief who was attempting to unify the Melanesian tribes of Fiji into a Polynesian style Kingdom. This shows that there was progression towards assimilation - not the reverse as many scientists would have us believe.
Photo L. Marsh Ratu Sukuna's bure (Lau Islands 1966) compared to Samoan Fales. Round ended houses on
platforms were also a characteristic of Mayan houses. Was there trade with Central America ~1,000 years ago?
The Samoan tradition of eating Chilli with Cocoa does suggest a connection both through introduction of plants
as well as culinary practices.
Here is a legend from Kiribati describing the growth of the Samoan Ancestral tree up to the Thirteenth Century.
This legend describes the mixing of Polynesians with red haired, pale skinned people of Samoa. The legend indicates that the Polynesians had already colonized many of the surrounding islands - including Tonga. This legend debunks the notion that Samoa was the crucible of Polynesian society as it describes the destruction of the society that was once there - a society of macabre practices that no society would be proud to be part of. These people revelled in human sacrifice and cannibalism. They were not Melanesians, but according to the legend, were red haired white people who used fear of death as a way of creating an obedient society. These people were possibly the last of the Lapita people. Here is the legend.
The Growth of the Samoan Ancestor Tree.
From; Migrations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert Islands by Rosemary Grimble
Taranga (Polynesian) lived on the sea, and when he finally decided to settle on Samoa he was surprised to find Auriaria (tall, red haired people) already there and they remained the dominant people. From Auriaria and Taranga came the Te-uribaba lineage who had beliefs against the terrible practices (human sacrifice) of the Auriaria, but did not gain power. Taburimai was a later lineage. Koura was another breakaway group but they embraced the ways of the Auriaria . Tabu-ariki, Riiki, Nei Tevenei and Nei Tituaabine are all more recent lineages that grew out of this family tree. All these people descended from the Auriaria were known as; “The Red men, with red hair and pale skin”. The first great kings of Samoa was ‘Batuku, the skull'. He was tall with a very long skull. He was of the Auriaria lineage. The food of Batuku was the heads of the people killed by his children. There came a time of boatbuilding and sailing. The children of Batuku joined with the many people from other islands – the male lineages came from Au-te-venevene, Au-te-rarangaki, Taburitokia, Kotunga, Kaburoro and Nan-Te-Buaka people. The female lineages came from Nei Bubuia, Nei Te-wa-matang, Nei Kaekea, Nei Te-wi, Nei Kiaiai and Nei Kameenono people. These people together began making boats that could sail great distances in search for food for ‘Batuku the skull', their ancestor figure. This new society was led by Kaburoro and they built a great boat. To launch it they slew many men for the rollers.
With this new age of voyaging, their numbers grew as men from other islands came on board - the Nan Tabera-ni-bou, Nan Te-ata, Nan Te-aababa, Nan Tari-ni-bwe and Na Uamori. A woman Nei Te-buroburo also joined them.
All these people created the Samoan population under the reign of Te Kaburoro.
Then went Te Kaburoro with its crew, the children of ‘Batuku the skull' to seek the food of their father. They sailed west to Futuna Island. The people stood on the beach to welcome them, but the children of ‘Batuku the skull' went ashore to slay them. They were not prevented because the people of Futuna knew naught of fighting.
Over one hundred were slain and from among the dead bodies, the first born and the bald and bearded ones were chosen as food for Batuku their god. And the children of Batuku cut off the heads of the dead and used the heads as decoration on their canoe. They sailed back to Samoa and arrived at the place called Te-maungi-n-aomata - ‘The putrefaction of men'. Then again the canoe of Kaburoro went voyaging to find food for their god Batuku-the –skull and they went to Nuku-maroro Nieue, again the people knew not the art of fighting and many were slain.
The family lineage of Te-Uribaba disapproved of this terrible practice and they decided to end it. So Te-Uribaba hid under a leaf mat on the boat of Kaburoro on its next journey of death to Tonga. The people of Tonga were slain but Te-Uribaba slipped into the sea under the leaf mat and swam ashore to teach them the art of war.
After that Te-uribaba arose and went to Futuna and Nuku-maroro and he taught them all the art of war.
A new generation grew up and they were all skilled in fighting.
Finally in the thirteenth century, Chief Savea (Polynesian) led the battle against the 'Children of Batuku the Skull' (The Red Headed Auriaria) and destroyed them. Further battles across the Pacific led to the end of this terrible society based on human sacrifice.
The legend of the wars in the Pacific at this time is confirmed by the numerous mountain fortresses across the Pacific all dated at around the 13th century. The lack of respect that Polynesians have for pyramids with names such as Maha'ia'tea (Many-people-white) is understandable, in the light of the terrible practices of this former culture based around human sacrifice.
Long skull from Paracas. Was Batuku
related to these seafaring people known
to be red heads from South America?
See; American Indians in the Pacific, Thor Heyerdahl.
|The Pulemelei Star Pyramid of Samoa||Samoan chief 1940|
These black haired people would don red wigs for ceremonial purposes. Why?
Photos from Jane's Oceania
|Samoan Warrior||Samoan Warrior|
Some Kiribati families still claim descent from these 'Red Men'. An interesting tradition of these people to this day is for the bride and groom to consumate their wedding within earshot of the wedding party, whereapon consumation, the mother of the groom would inspect the bed mat for blood, to ensure the bride was a virgin. Interestingly this is a tradition still held by many groups descended from the Berbers (Iran, Palestine, Morocco, Basque and Irish people (remember the marriage scene in 'Ryan's Daughter'?). This is most certainly not a Polynesian custom and may also have entered the Pacific via the Lapita people.
Interestingly in Kiribati, skulls of respected elders are removed and polished with oils and at family gatherings the skull is given a prominent position. It is often talked to as if it were still alive. It is offered food and cigarettes, and given verbal respect. Once again suggesting that although the Kiribati people are genetically Micronesian, the Lapita culture has persisted in these people - minus the head hunting. This skull worship culture is reflected at the Teouma site, where the absence of skulls in many of the urns suggests that the skulls were removed for use in ritualistic skull worship.
The preference for the King to eat the first born and the bald and bearded ones is reminiscent of a Cannibalistic Indian culture who believed that one would inherit the qualities, knowledge and wisdom of the ones you eat. Inheriting the qualities of the first born is very significant if one is living in a mixed society where rhesus negative (blood group O-) red heads are inter-breeding with people of blood group A&B, causing complications at birth often resulting in the death of the second child and mother.
the above legend to the history
of Hawai'i .
"In the period of 100 years, 1300-1400 AD, an unknown number of warlike Tahitians arrived on the peaceful islands of Hawaii. At some point the warrior/priest Pa`ao came to Hawaii and found that the power of religion was at a 'low ebb'. He was disturbed that the people lived in peace and that the 'kapus' were few and the ceremonies were easy: that human sacrifices were not practiced, and cannibalism was unknown; and that the government was more patriarchal than regal in nature." (Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race, Vol.1,p 209) To him, it seemed that the previous invasions from Tahiti, had failed. There being no real class distinctions and the newcomers being assimilated into the culture was with typical Hawaiian Aloha. This could not be tolerated. He went back to Tahiti and then returned with warriors, priests (Kahuna) and royalty (Ali'i) of much mana (spiritual power). With this force, he invaded the peaceful land. He killed the priests of 'Io and changed the attributes of Ku, Lono and Kane, from detesting human death, to demanding it. He brought bloody stones from a human sacrificial site in Tahiti and used them to desecrate the primary heiau (temple) of 'Io on the "Big Island" and then built his luakini (human sacrificial) heiau on top of it. A few of the priests of `Io escaped to New Zealand, before Pa'ao had the great voyaging canoes burnt and the Hawaiian navigators put to death. After this, Hawaii had very little contact with the outside world for the next 100 years.
Pa`ao is credited with, not only the destruction of the peaceful culture of the Hawaiians and the perversion of the worship of Ku, but with the introduction of many elemental spirits (like Pele) and the cruel 'kapu' system. This forbade many things and demanded many more, with any infraction being punishable by death. The laws were strict and always favored the Kahuna and the Ali`i. With this new power given to the ruling classes (by manipulating the masses through fear) their kingdoms became more powerful. Terrible wars erupted as rival chiefdoms attempted to exert their new found power over their neighbours.
At some point during the eradication of the priests of `Io, one of them prophesied that 'one day the knowledge of `Io would be restored to the Hawaiian people.' For 600 years the families descended from the priesthood have kept that hope alive, wondering, will our son be the one?"
This basicly shows that the Hawaiians - the genetic core of Polynesians, were once a very peaceful, loving people, but their culture was perverted by the people from the south.
Bella Coola valley (pre Haida) Tiki and petroglyph compared to two Taino petroglyphs from the Virgin Islands, suggesting the extent of the migrations
of the Tai/Hai culture from East Asia ~6,000-8,000 years ago. 8-10,000 years old Tiki Petroglyphs similar to this can also be found in China.
Maori Tiki compared to Haida Tiki.
The Maori and Haida tongue both signify
wisdom and virility.
Hawaiian ancestral war god Ku, compared to a
Yami carving from 'Red Head' Island off Taiwan.
The Polynesian tongue and angry mouth motif appear to be more closely associated with other cultures on the Pacific rim that have no connection to
Melanesian or Lapita culture.
..... and back to Lapita
Images from; OCEANIC EXPLORATIONS Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement.
The depiction of the Ram or Aries on Lapita pottery is intriguing. Is this a statement of who these people were? The Ram's head design is commmonly found on Lapita pottery - The Egyptian name for the ram is Ba. Tuku means to give to - as in an offering. Batuku may have meant "the worshippers of Ba". Aries is also the symbol of the Aryan milk drinkers, suggesting that a group of red/blonde heads brought their beliefs from the Middle East and were a different group to the people who came into the Pacific from Turtle Island (America) bringing with them the story of the great turtle who formed the first land for man and woman.
Micronesian legend has it that there were three different groups of fair skinned people; the Auriaria, Taburimai and Tituaabine. They all worshipped phallic stone monoliths. The Auriaria were descended from the parrot billed Turtle -Tabakea- the father of all beings.
It remains to be seen whether the Taburimai or the Tituaabine can be connected to the sheep worshippers.
One must also understand that the age of Lapita was during the Age of Aries, therefore their worship of Aries is no surprise. The Age of Aries ended in 1AD with the beginning of the age of Pisces (birth of Jesus).
White ancestry in many legends of the Pacific has always baffled researchers, yet the pottery here is speaking loud and clear.
Images from; OCEANIC EXPLORATIONS Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement.
Whichever way you look at it, there is a face, but who were these mouthless long nosed people? This motif certainly has no resemblance to the gaping mouth and tongue motif of the East Asians, Native Americans or Polynesians.
Obsidian Axe head, West New Britain(Photo;Paul Ovenden) Malagan Mask Lapita face with Ra symbol Bronze Axe Indonesia
The pre lapita artefact from Boku Hill, West New Britain, found by Jim Specht and documented by Robin Torrence. This artefact is dated between 5,900 and 3,600 BP and is believed to have been used for ceremony as it is too delicate to be a functional tool, although its sharpness and similarity to South American knives used for cutting out hearts in human sacrifice is uncanny. It suggests that a highly skilled society, once existed in this area predating the human sacrifice cultures of America. Interestingly, some Central American cultures believes the origin of the skull worshipping culture is in the islands of the Western Pacific (story of the Synergy Crystal skull).
Photo by Johnathon Friedlaender
A blonde Melanesian from Lau Is, Malaita. Remnants of these ancient white people of the Pacific are still visible on some Melanesian islands.
Interestingly, when Caucasians have interbred with Melanesians in the last 200 years the result is quite different. Hair becomes wavy, is rarely blonde and the skin is usually paler, suggesting that the Lapita people of 1,500BC were a different type of Caucasian, with a different balance of dominant genes, resulting in a different appearance of mixed blood individuals.
Tolai ancestral masks collected by missionaries in the 1880's. Micronesian Chrystal Skull - Synergy
Is the name Tolai derived from the people of Tolan, also know as Tulapin (the lost land of Turtle Island (Bahamas) in Lakota and Anasazi legends)? It would make sense that a culture used to living off the ocean would choose to recolonize other archipelagoes in the tropics after their land disappeared under the waves ~6,000 years ago.
the variance between the sheep and the turtle worshippers in the Lapita culture,
it seems there may have been a dual origin of Caucasians in the Pacific, some
from the Western Indian Ocean and others from America.
The ancestral mask on the left appears to have an artificially elongated head, suggesting the practice of infant head deformation common to South American Mummies. This mask also sports the classic red topknot as seen on Easter Island statues and also amongst Araucanian ancestral carvings. The Tolai live on a cluster of islands that are directly down wind and down current from Central America. Perfectly placed to sieve out wayward voyagers from the opposite side of the Pacific. This would have been a relatively easy voyage, despite the distance. There would have been; plentiful fish, high rainfall, no hurricanes, no chance of hypothermia and no enemy tribes to fight enroute.
On the other hand, an origin from the Western Indian Ocean also carries weight. The Tolai practice a secret mens' society, similar to Druid/Wizard based cultures in the Persian Gulf and Egypt, where superstition and fear was used to rule the masses. Early missionaries were astounded to be greeted with the Masonic handshake, suggesting a connection to Egyptian culture. This cultural thread goes further than just New Guinea, the first Europeans to meet the Aborigines of the Kimberly region were also met with a Masonic handshake. This is near to where the famous Wandjina paintings of robed figures with pale faces and Phoenician writing on their foreheads come from, it is also near to where the African Baobab tree is found - a tree which produces an edible nut that was used for food on oceanic voyages by ancient mariners. The islands of Melanesia are at the end of the line for coastal navigators who have island hopped all the way from Western Africa or the Persian Gulf. Reaching these islands, refugees looking for a new homeland would have had little choice, but to settle down.
There may be some confusion with regard to the Masonic reference above. Although the Scots resurrected the Free Mason religion in more recent times, it is an ancient religion that goes back to the Megalithic era, hence the name Mason (Stone mason). It was practiced by the Druids of Stonehenge and also by the Druids or Wizards (wisemen or scientists) of Egypt. The Freemasons and the Armigsah (Freemen) all share a common history in their 'Mythology'. They all assert they are descended from the people of Tolan/Tlan or Atlantis. Place names in America that remember this Golden Age are names such as Azatlan, Atlan, Tulan and Atlanta.
The Masons were one of the the first religions to use magic (tricks of science) and fear to manipulate and mobilize the masses, so that kings could create great megalithic monuments, pyramids, places of worship, statues, roads, irrigation channels and harbours. They were in effect a complete engineering/social manipulation package. They were great astronomical scientists, and engineers who used superstition, magic and human sacrifice to strike fear into the hearts of their followers, so that the efforts of a large number of people could be focussed on the one project.
A religion similar to the Masons was possibly the driving force behind the building of the 200 Moai on Rapa nui.
This religion also found its way into the Tolai culture, most likely by trans-Pacific voyaging as much as 12,000 years ago.
The Tolai culture is also famous for Duk Duks, mysteriously feathered creatures that have mystical powers. They take part in ceremonies that occur in early May. These ceremonies have an uncanny resemblance to the Jack in the Green ceremony, held on May day in Europe. The Duk Duks wield wooden clubs and have the right to club anyone they feel to be undesirable to the cause. Another May Day ceremony held in Padstow, Cornwall called Belltane use unusual conical masks that bear a striking resemblance to the New Guinea conical masks.
Duk Duk Jack in the Green - wielding sticks.
I am not suggesting that Englishmen came and did the Jack in the Green dance in front of the Tolai, nor that a Scottish mason jumped ship and taught these people a secret handshake. What I am saying is that Both European and Pacific cultures have a common link a long long way back in time, possibly in Atlantis 11,500 years ago. Is it mere coincidence that the natural catastrophe (rapidly rising sea levels which in turn caused earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes) that caused the destruction of Atlantis 11,500 years ago coincides with the 11,500 year hiatus between Melanesian and Polynesian culture? The ancient culture of Atlantis was not just carried on by the Egyptians, but was also was carried on by the red haired civilization of Tulapin (Terapin/Turtle Island) and were a dominant population in America until 6,000 years ago. Therefore the further back in time we go, the more difficult it is to separate cultural characteristics of the Old world and the New world (Solutrean/Clovis similarities).
Scientists should look more closely at the Tolai culture, as I believe by comparing them to English pagan rituals, and observing the commonalities between ceremony, we will see a window into the culture of Atlantis.
|1. Teouma skull, displaying the characteristic long skull of early Caucasians commonly found in America and the Middle East. Could these people also be a relic of the early Caucasian migration to America seen in Haplotype X2a which originated from the Persian Gulf.||2. The rim of some Teouma pots were decorated with these unusual birds. Photos by Stuart Bedford||
3. Burial Urns Tamil Nadu similar to the Lapita urns of Teouma
4. Mayan burial urn - the plot thickens
Harappa burial urn and bird figurine.
point of origin between these people begins to fall into place when we notice
an unusual haplotype HLA A11,B40, which predisposes people to contracting Leprosy,
is common to both Melanesia and the Indus region.
The famous Serpentine Korotangi found entwined in the roots of a very old tree is of great spiritual significance to the Maori.
It is said to have arrived in New Zealand in the Tainui canoe.
The style is reminiscent of Indian carvings of a homing pidgeon.
The age of the carving, or provenance of the rock is yet to be determined.
The Pacific Islands are blessed with a complete absence of any snake species, yet the left hand image is of an Hawai'i chieftan's necklace, it is symbolic of a Cobra's head. The right hand image is of a Maori chiefs necklace - a serpents head. Are these cultural shadows of the Serpent Warriors of Central America, who in turn originated from the Middle East in the Bronze Age? The Serpent warriors are also the people St Patrick expelled from Ireland. To the right are signatures of Maori chiefs from the Waitangi treaty. Some of the symbols suggest a distant connection to the old world, in particular, the Serpent on a staff, the Swastika and the some signatures reminiscent of King Solomons E symbol.
The Blonde Tolai of Bismarck Archipelago and red heads of Missima Islands could well be the closest genetic relatives to the Lapita people. Culturally, they may also have some remnants of the Lapita people. The secret mens society from this same area has many uncanny similarities to the Druids and Masons of Egypt and suggests an ancient connection to the Old World, possibly through the Lapita people. Kiribati legends speak of an ancestral link to the 'Red Men' of Samoa, men who would raid islands and kill hundreds of victims as offerings to their gods once back in Samoa. They would pay particular attention to eating the bald and bearded ones (wise men) and the first born. They believed they would absorb the qualities of the people they ate. These cannibalistic beliefs can be found in secretive cults still in existence in India. The only time that the first born becomes significant is if one is living in a mixed society where rhesus negative (O-) blood is common. As second born babies would often die or cause the death of the mother at birth. They observed that first born were healthy and did not cause complications. They had no idea that it was the antibodies created by the birth of the mixed blood first born to an O- mother that was causing the problems. This one tradition alone clearly shows the racial type of the Lapita people - O negative - red/blonde haired, blue eyed people - a race of people possessing superceded or recessive genes incompatible to Asian and Melanesian genes. A bit like a computer with old software - updating the software automatically relegates the old version to the archived gene tree. A worst case scenario is the updated version causes the old hardware to crash - a bit like the complications seen in second born babies to O- mothers. The pale skin of these people forced them to cover up with robes. The Wandjina images of the Kimberlies show these people in robes with eye holes. This age old tradition of Berbers is clearly an old fashioned form of sunscreen as their pale skin was not suited to spending years at sea in the harsh tropical sun.
Yuri Kuchinski notes on Pan Atlantic similarities, that: "In both Europe and the New World, at the very same time, Megalithic cultures arise around 4500 BC; then on both continents, at the very same time, copper-using Beaker-inspired cultures arise in 3000 BC. Next, the Beaker Groups flee from conquest in 1500 BC, as the cultures of Western Europe are disrupted by Celtic invasions. It is possible that some of these peoples migrated to America, and their Beaker cultural traits began to be widespread in North America. This period also marks the beginning of the Olmec empire. Finally in both Europe and the New World, at the very same time, Beaker-derived cultures collapse in 700 BC.
At the same time that the Beaker civilization was flourishing on the shores of the Atlantic, an empire of pottery-making people also spanned the western Pacific from 2000 B.C. to 700 B.C. They made similar pots, with similar designs.
The chronological "coincidences" are too much for chance."
The possibility that the Berber empire stretched into the Pacific becomes even more real when we find that the Berber Guanches of the Canary Islands off Africa once made stepped pyramids in a similar manner to the stepped pyramids made from stones found in Samoa (Star Pyramid/Pulemelei mound) and Tahiti (Maha'iatea). Polynesian genes amongst these red haired seafarering Gaunches also hint at the existence of a global seafaring culture lost in the mists of time.
Mahaiatea Pyramid as seen by Captain Cook in Tahiti.(interestingly, the literal translation of
Maha-ia-tea means Many white people).
|Compare the Tahitian pyramid to the Pyramids of the Canary islands made by the Gaunches(red heads) or Berber seafarers.||Little is known about the people who built the mysterious pyramids of Mauritius.|
Are these remnants of an ancient sea merchant seafaring culture? Also, the Cape Verde Islands have an interesting mix of genes, of which Polynesian genes are common. On this island an ancient culture called Batuku is remembered in their music and dance. Interestingly, the dance is a sensuous rapid hip swinging routine characteristic of Samoan and Tahitian dance (as opposed to the slower more graceful dance found in Hawai'i and New Zealand).
In my mind, there is a distinct possibility that this seafaring culture known in Samoa as Batuku had trade links and colonies around the world.
James L Guthrie remarks; On the basis of stone points, axes, pottery, and other evidence, Kennedy (1971) connected the Caribbean with other “Pan-Atlantic” cultures of 3000-1500 B.C. Focusing on pottery, he listed six traits, such as coil-building, that are typical of Atlantic Europe, Northwest Africa, Middle America, the Caribbean, and southeastern North America. (Lapita pottery is also red slipped, coil built, with stamped geometric designs). He said that Southeastern check-stamped wares (2000 B.C.) are identical to those of Morocco, that the red slip technique came from northwestern Africa or southern Spain about 2500 B.C.According to Kennedy, many traits of the European Late Neolithic period derive from predynastic Egypt, being preserved by Berbers, Maltese, and others, then being transmitted to the Caribbean, southeastern North America, and eventually to the Pacific Coast, and out into the Pacific. He called this era “one of the greatest periods of group mobility or voyaging in man's history. He described the Bell Beaker people as an aggressive industrial culture exploiting copper, salt, and stone (obsidian), marked by exceptional mobility by land and sea. Much other evidence supports this view, especially the findings of Chadwick (1971) and Alcina Franch Chadwick put such elements of the Beaker complex as stirrup-spout pottery, as early as 2000 B.C. at Tlatilco (Central Mexico) and Kotosh (Peru), but he also thought there had been a second Pan-Atlantic wave at about 500 B.C. Alcina's study of stamp seals led him to conclude that they had reached Middle America about 1500 B.C., from the Canary Islands.”
The page on the left from America BC by Barry Fell, shows the similarity between Berber/Libyan/Mauri (North African) text to Maori petroglyphs on the other side of the world. Same writing -same name (Maori/Mauri) - are we all so stupid that we cannot see a connection here?
The page on the right shows the similarity between Indus text and Easter Island text. For the scientist who said this text of the Easter Islanders was mere idle doodlings of the natives trying to copy Spanish text, I say stop wasting taxpayers money writing bullshit scientific papers.
Petroglyphs in Norway indicate the type of craft around at the time - outrigger canoes! These ancient 5,000 year old petroglyphs are from a time of global warming when the N.W. passage was open allowing people from the North Pacific to travel into the North Atlantic, hence outrigger petroglyphs in Norway, Jomon Myami pendants in Malta, Asian type skulls in graves in Europe, Asian elements in the Etruscan culture and 5-6,000 year old East Asian genes in the Canary Islands and Libya.
This Norwegan petroglyph is of a boat. It clearly depicts two hulls buckled together to form an outrigger canoe. According to Barry Fell the markings are in archaic Nordic text and says; 'Buckler - thrust out to sea (at launching)'. The writing system using dots is also found in the Bella Coola Valley on the coast near Vancouver Is, Canada. Was the above petroglyph drawn by Norwegians or was there an earlier culture of ocean traders who used outrigger canoes living along these coasts in ancient times? Were these people the red haired Berber/Lapita culture or Austronesian traders who appear to have ventured to Malta (see Graham Hancock - Kingdoms of the Ice Age)? I suspect that both cultures traded in this area at different times.
Direction of Colonization
Although the generally accepted entry point of the Lapita people into the Pacific was via S.E. Asia, one should remember that Lapita pottery appeared 3,900 years ago on an isolated island in the middle of the Bismark archepelago quite suddenly with little formative phase. No earlier examples of this potter have ever been found West of the Bismark Islands. There have been no serious studies as to the actual origins of the people who brought this style of pottery to Melanesia. These islands are in the middle of the Southern Equatorial Current, arriving from South/Central America. Lapita and the African Berber “bell beaker” style of dentate stamped pottery found in North Africa and Iberia does have similarities. Their culture began over 5,000 years ago, there was an exodus from Europe about 3,500 years ago and the culture collapsed totally by 2,700 years ago, the same time that Lapita disappeared in the Pacific. The Berbers were accomplished mariners well accustomed at using the rivers of the ocean. They were a mix of African and European people. It is highly likely that they followed the Southern Equatorial Current from Panama, into the heart of Melanesia
A Complicated past
Geneticist Lisa Matissoo-Smith has been studying Rattus Exulans as a means of tracing the movements of Pacific colonizers by the gene tree of a domestic rat which appears to have stowed away on boats voyaging into the Pacific. To everyones' surprise it shows a startling movement in the opposite direction to what was expected.
The graph below shows that Rattus Exulans has a cousin, known as the 'small spiny rice field rat' on Halmahera - an Indonesian island close to where the famous Bugis and Toraja seafarers come from. According to the genes extracted from bones of rats unearthed on numerous islands, the first colonization of these rat colonies was not in Vanuatu, New Caledonia or Fiji as would be expected, but in New Zealand. The date of initial colonization of New Zealand was between 2,500 and 2,000 years ago. From there the species began colonizing islands to the north. The rat must have stowed away on boats, and did not arrive through more natural means, firstly because it cannot swim more than 10m without drowning and because ocean currents flow in the opposite direction to colonization, ruling out the possibility of it hitching a ride on a floating log. Therefore their dispersal reflects the colonization pattern of one group of people who undoubtedly contributed to the cultures of the Pacific. So who were these people?
As you can see from this line of descent diagram, the earliest branch of Rattus in the Pacific is from New Zealand (NZ34) which arrived between 2,500 and 2,000 years ago. The second branch is also from New Zealand (NZ 29,30,31,32), with one branch in the Societies. The third branch finally spreads northwards to the Kermadecs, then back to New Zealand, then northwards again to the Society Islands, then south again to the Cook Islands and back to New Zealand. This certainly looks like progressive exploration from New Zealand - not the reverse as is commonly believed. After this initial period of colonization it appears that voyages to the Chatham Islands, Fiji, the Marquesas and Hawaii soon followed with numerous back migrations.
How could it be that New Zealand was the dispersal point of this rat?
If one looks at the easiest sea route to New Zealand, it is via the Southern Ocean using favourable winds and currents from The Indian Ocean. Sea trade in the Indian Ocean has gone on for thousands of years and would be the most logical place of origin for ships arriving in New Zealand, either accidentally or on purpose. This southern route from the Indian Ocean into the Pacific would be the most logical route taken by someone attempting to circumnavigate the world (voyage of Mawi and Rata) or by someone with a partially disabled ship, from a broken mast or broken rudder. Sea traders returning from South America via the Cape of Good Hope would often take advantage of the westerlies in the 30-40 degree lattitudes to take them across the Indian Ocean before travelling North to India or the Spice Islands, utilizing the S.E. Trade winds. This route was favoured by the Dutch who would travel from Rio De Janiero with the Westerlies around the Cape of Good Hope, then hopefully before hitting Australia, would head north to the Spice Islands. Semi disabled ships could end up on the dry uninviting West Australian coast, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Confirming this possibility, Phoenician/Egyptian writing has been found in South Australia and Tasmania and Berber writing has been found in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Pre Maori irrigation channels, the Kaimanawa wall and pre-Maori circular fortifications near Taranaki along with numerous tall Caucasian skeletons found in caves throughout New Zealand all suggest the presence of people in New Zealand before the main colonization period by the Polynesians. The Kaimanawa wall is buried in volcanic ash from the eruption of Lake Toupu in 180AD, helping to establish a timeframe for this period of colonization and a possible reason for the demise of these people.
Kaimanua wall New Zealand, covered in ash from the Lake Toupo explosion in 181 AD, there would have been few survivors from this Egyptian colony, founded by Mawi and Rata in 200BC..
|Ha amonga a Maui||Lapaha, Mua, Tonga||Ancient walls Rapa nui|
To help understand the arrival of these megalithic cultures in the Pacific, one needs to look at Egyptian history which curiously, has a navigator called Mawi (Maui) who with Captain Rata and a fleet of ships, attempted to circumnavigate the world in 232 BC under the guidance of scientist Eratosthenes who had calculated the circumference of the Earth and wanted verification of his results. Barry Fell identified petroglyphs in the Pacific attributed to Mawi and so was able to trace his voyage to Chile, Pitcairn Island and New Guinea.
According to Maori legend Maui discovered many islands in the Pacific - in particular, New Zealand.
Maori legend has it that Rata was on a mission to avenge the killing of his parents/ancestors. As the Lapita/Obsidian sea traders had suffered an unexplained demise just prior to the voyage of Maui and Rata, was Captain Rata in search of the killers of the Lapita people?
If this Egyptian fleet had attempted to circumnavigate the world via the southern route, logically they would have initially travelled Eastwards to a familiar trading port in Southern Sumatra to reprovision their ships, taking on board Rattus exulans. As the N.E. and S.E. Trade winds of the Pacific make it exceedingly difficult to travel Eastwards, their logical passage would have been to travel south, utilizing the Easterlies which blow off Australia until they reached the Westerly wind belt. New Zealand would logically have been their first stop. Petroglyphs by Mawi in Chile (at about 35 degrees south) found by Barry Fell depicts another important milestone on his voyage. It appears Maui travelled North once he had touched on the South American Coastline in search of a passage through to the Atlantic. Unwilling to venture far enough south to round the formidable Cape Horn, Mawi must have seen the South American coastline as an insurmountable barrier. According to petroglyphs on Pitcairn Island, it appears that Mawi returned with the S.E. Trade winds across the Pacific. Petroglyphs indicate Mawi viewed a Lunar Eclipse on Pitcairn Island. The celestially aligned Ha'amonga a Maui (The burden of Maui) suggests a stopover in Tonga Tapu to do some accurate solar observations. The megalithic stone pyramids of Lapaha nearby also suggest the handiwork of Egyptian stonemasons, suggesting that they attempted to set up a colony. The early walls of Rapa Nui (see above) and the Kaimanua wall of New Zealand also suggest Egyptian stonemasonry technology. Petroglyphs in Irian Jaya's 'cave of the navigators', marks Mawi's return to familiar waters, where he described the navigational device - the Tanawa, which he used on the voyage to find longitude. It is interesting that Polynesians wear the Taniwha to ensure a safe ocean voyage and successful landfall. Although it is a dragon motif, not an instrument, it is said that angles and holes on a genuine pendant helped one navigate by the stars.
The most logical route Mawi would have taken in his failed attempt to circumnavigate the world.
Polynesians also attribute the discovery of Tahiti, Tuamotus, Marquesas and Hawaii to Maui. These are all places where there is an early appearance of Rattus exulans. So was the rat brought by Maui, Rata and their fleet of ships? The other possibility is that the rat was brought by other wayward trading vessels from the Indian Ocean, but a chance colonization in New Zealand from shipwrecked sailors would hardly have produced such a rapid and deliberate expansion of this rat northwards into the rest of Polynesia. As the chronology of the rat matches with Maui's voyage of 232BC, I believe that the rat was brought by a fleet of ships on a tour of discovery led by navigator Maui and Captain Rata who both appear in the history books of Egypt and also in the oral history of the Polynesians. With a little more research, this may hopefully be verified.
It should be pointed out that Mawi and Rata were certainly not the only voyagers who entered the Pacific realm. The cast iron Tamil Nadu bell found on the North Island of New Zealand is proof that voyagers had arrived from India either deliberately or accidentally. The seafaring abilities of the Toraja and Bugis from the Celebes may have also have had an influence in the Pacific across to South America judging from similarities in technologies and culture between the Karajia and Toraja peoples' cliff cemetries. The existence of Ficus Religiosa (Bodhi tree) amongst ruins in the Marquesas also suggests the extent of attempted colonization in the Pacific of either Hindu or Buddhist travellers. In Pohnpei, the famous Nan Madol/Matal ruins suggest that this was an important reprovisioning port for trans-Pacific traders, the name for provincial governor is Nahn mwarki. In Egyptian language it is Nam marche, once again suggesting Middle Eastern influences in the Pacific.
The Chatham Islanders
Among these Moriori people, photographed in 1877, there are three survivors of the 1835 Colonial/Maori invasion.
Hirawanu Tapu (second left, standing), Rohana (second left, sitting) and Tatua (second right, standing)
were adolescents at the time, and endured over two decades of slavery.
Descendants of survivors include Wari Tutaki (left), Teretiu Rehe (third left, standing), Rangitapua Horomona Rehe (fourth left, standing),
Piripi (far right), Ngakikingi (middle, sitting) and Te Tene Rehe (next right).
Although this atrocious act of genocide was committed by the Maori, it was the English Colonials who were inflaming the territorial conflict in New Zealand by giving favoured tribes guns, so as to give them an unfair advantage over their enemies. This practice of getting the natives to kill each other, was a standard practice used by the English in many of their colonies. It was called 'divide and conquer'. With the Chatham Islands, the English provided guns to a favoured tribe near Wellington who then massacred an adjacent tribe and took their land. The English then took the tribe who lost their land to the Chatham Islands and gave them all the guns they needed to massacre the tribes there. They provided two ships and guns for 900 men to do the genocidal deed. Only a handful of Chatham Islanders survived. The photo above is one of the few in existence showing 3 full blooded individuals from these islands.
It is clear from these photos that these people are of the same racial group as the Indian Veda, Japanese Ainu, African Anu, Sumatran Batak and Native Australian. Their profuse beards, wavy hair and strong brow ridges rule out the notion that they are of Taiwanese/Polynesian or Melanesian blood. Their refusal to fight when faced with imminent genocide is characteristic of this breed of people who dominated the planet between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago and may well have inhabited New Zealand from this early period. Finding archaeological sites to prove an ice age population in New Zealand, may require digs in 140metres of water or under hundreds of metres of volcanic ash.
Tinian and Taga Man
Ancient Micronesian megalithic monuments.
The ancient art of lime impressed pottery appears to have it's origins in the Guam/Phillippine area 6,500 years ago. Some believe descendants of these people became the Lapita people.
Taga man from these islands possessed skull characteristics (occipital superstructures) similar to Neanderthal skulls, the robusticity of bones also far exceeded those of all other hominids. One legend states theat Taga man was 10 feet tall! Another legend describes his inability to have children from his Chamorro wife. These interesting characteristics suggest that Taga man was a different breed of human - possibly a relic population of homo erectus still living in isolation in the Pacific conducting a megalithic culture that was then passed on to the Chamorro people of the area. The Chamorro people are also an ancient group more akin to Australian Aborigines. They even process Cycads the same way as the Australian Aborigines. Could Cycads have been a chosen food for these voyagers 40-60,000 years ago? I wonder if the aboriginal population of Tierra Del Fuego also processed Cycads?
Micronesia and its megalithic culture may possess some very interesting secrets as to the depth of Pacific prehistory.
In Migrations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert Islands by Rosemary Grimble the legend of Na Areau describes a black frizzy haired pigmy as a trickster and is also believed to be from the original inhabitants of the islands of Micronesia.
Photo by Loisette Marsh
Fijian Legend has it that there were already people living in Fiji when the "Fijians" arrived under the guidance of Chief Lutunasobasoba (who according to legend, arrived from Lake Tanganyika, Africa). Did Lutunasobasoba arrive as part of the Lapita culture or was he a Nubian king?
Relic genes of the original population of Fiji may well still be in the people of central Viti Levu. The gentleman above is from Nadrou village in the central highlands of Fiji. People of central Fiji as a general rule are not as tall, have darker skin and have a broader face with pronounced features common to Negrito groups around the world, suggesting that these people may have the ancestry of much more ancient people than the Lapita people, more akin to the highlanders of New Guinea. I believe it highly likely that an ancient population of Negritos may have inhabited Fiji in a similar manner to the way the Highlanders of New Guinea escaped the onslaight of coastal invasions by living their lives high up in the mountains along streams and in impenetrable rainforest. Negritos are survivors from a global population between 75,000 and 120,000 years ago and can be genetically traced back to the Pygmies of the Congo with a very identifiable 120,000 year old DNA marker coinciding with the arrival of Malaria in New Guinea from Africa 100,000 years ago.
In nature, relic plant and animal species from a previous dominant population can often be found surviving in isolated pockets in the mountains or on isolated islands. This concept can also be transferred to human populations, where people often go unnoticed by invaders from the sea. We may or may not find archaeological evidence proving the antiquity of this more ancient population of Fiji, but hopefully genetics may be more forthcoming in determining the time of isolation of Fijians in the interior of Viti Levu from other Negrito groups in Africa, New Guinea, the Phillippines and the Andaman Islands.
Melanesian Kava ceremony. The ritual of drinking Kava, although also seen in Tonga and some parts of South America.
It reached its peak of ritualism amongst the Fijians, not the Polynesians. Photo L. Marsh.
The harmonious singing of a Fijian Meke is very reminiscent of African culture.
The spiritualism behind the Beqa firewalkers may also give an insight into the complex evolution of Fijian culture.
Photos by L. Marsh Suva 1964.
According to (Clyde A. Winters), based on archaeology and linguistics, came to the conclusion that the African Mande were responsible for the rise of the Olmec empire which was flourishing by 1300 BC.
Many Olmec murals of Central America depict Black Africans, Red haired Caucasians, and tanned skinned people living side by side, the famous Olmec heads look distinctly African, suggesting that Africans were the leaders of this culture. It is highly likely that any Ocean voyages from this area would have comprised a racial mix of all three groups, but were dominated by Africans.
Lapita pottery originated in a group of islands that happen to be at the end of the Southern Equatorial current, arriving from Central America, and funnily enough, these islands comprise an interesting mix of racial types where dark skinned frizzy haired Melanesians sometimes exhibit red and blonde hair. Blonde hair is found amongst the Tolai of the Bismark Archepelago and red hair with freckles is found amongst the people of Missima Island. It is only logical to assume that Lapita pottery people were a racial mix similar to the founding population of the Olmec.
Proof that trans Oceanic voyaging was happening in ancient times is the existance right across the Pacific of the African Jack Bean, African bottlegourd, South American coconut tree and a genetic mix of African and American cotton. These plants would have been essential for oceanic voyagers. The cotton would have been used for rope, sails and clothing (the loom did exist over 7,000 years ago and interestingly is the same design in Peru, Phillippines and Egypt and Mesopotamia) the jack beans were for food, and the bottlegourd for holding water. The coconut would have been extremely useful, both for food and water. Cocos island off Panama, was once covered by a massive plantation of coconut trees and was used as a reprovisioning stop by Ancient seafarers (Thor Heyerdahl - Early Man and the Ocean), not only for travel between Ecuador and Mexico, but also for voyages out into the Pacific. It has also been shown that coconuts cannot survive for more than one month at sea and the majority of coconut trees in the Pacific have not merely arrived through natural processes, but have been planted by man specifically for trans oceanic voyaging as much as 12,000 years ago.
Recent studies have shown a large amount of African genes, amongst the people of the Amazon River, dating back to about 10,000 years. This is associated with extensive agricultural earthworks and pottery. Both earthworks and style of pottery are similar to sites of a similar age in Africa, around areas such as the Niger River and Lake Chad. Recent linguistic studies have also drawn many similarities with the Mande language of Africa and some New Guinea dialects, especially in the New Guinea Highlands. There is even a town named Mende.
Mr Tim Denham of Adelaide University, excavated the Kuk Swamp, in the Upper Wahgi Valley in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, during 1998 and 1999 and uncovered circular mounds of earth, dated to 7,000 years ago. They were designed to aerate soggy soil so that it could be used for planting in areas that were poorly drained. At a locality nearby there are more advanced and highly planned drainage canals, covering an extensive area as seen in the aerial photo below that are even older. Carbon dating of sediments put the channels at over 9,000 years old.
These ancient irrigation canals in the Kuk Swamp. Drainage canals New Zealand, believed to be pre Maori.
This swamp agriculture, although is of a different style to the parallel rows found in the upper Amazon, it does suggest that there was a significant world population, all practicing swamp agriculture 7-10,000 years ago.The style of drainage canals shown above are very similar to ones found in New Zealand, Central America and Great Britain. Is there a connection?
The swamp farming used along the Amazon River, recently found by another team of archaeologists is connected to the African style pottery found in the area by Roosevelt et al. and could be associated with 8-10,000year old African genes. It remains to be seen whether a positive connection will be made between postulated early African voyaging and the very early pottery of the lower Amazon (8000-6000 B.C.) reported by Roosevelt et al. (1991) and Hoopes (1994). The the large pottery urns are similar to ones found amongst Minoan ruins, used for producing wine. Hoeppli (1969) identified African parasitic diseases that were present in early America and was able to distinguish them from those brought later by the slave trade.
(Schwerin 1970; Simmonds 1976; Lathrap 1977). Wendel, Schnabel, and Seelanan (1995) have now established the identity, through DNA sequences, of a 26 gene cotton variety on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec comprising 13 genes from Africa and 13 from America. This same species is found on the Canary Islands in the Atlantic and on many Pacific Islands, presumably a result of early human voyaging. This blending of genes is thought to have occured over 10,000 years ago. (References from; James L Guthrie American HLA's).
It appears that early African Agriculturalists have gone further than just the Amazon River. 10,000 years ago they crossed the Isthmus of Panama and their adventurous spirit led them into the Pacific Ocean, following the sun, with the wind behind them and a favourable ocean current, they cruised into the heart of Melanesia, searching for a big river, they established themselves on mainland New Guinea up the Wahgi valley. Bringing with them the bottlegourd, jack bean, Malaria and an advanced agricultural society. They would have assimilated with the existing population of black frizzy haired pygmies, giving rise to the medium height highlanders and also making it difficult for geneticists to separate the two separate origins of these people. The blue-black Solomon Islanders as well as Tolai and Missimi Island genes could well hold the key to unravelling the technicalities of these ancient migrations.
It appears there is a lot more to Lapita pottery than scientists have led us to believe. It appears that Melanesians as well as the Polynesians are the product of a number of cultures combining to form a richer and more complex society.
The Lakatoi from New Guinea, used for coastal trade. Entertainment is also a big part of this trading culture, possibly to ensure that visits to foreign villages was a friandly encounter, insuring that trade went smoothly. Is this a window into the past - of the Lapita culture? Photos Hiri Moale Website, see Links.
John Harding on a Lakatoi PNG
Outrigger sailing canoes, were the sailing craft of Melanesians and possibly the Lapita people, they have unequal sized hulls and 'go about' by shunting, keeping the smaller hull to windward at all times. Polynesians use catamarans, that 'go about' in the normal manner, without reversing direction. Two totally different sailing technologies. Photo from Vikings of the Sunrise by Sir Peter Buck
South American connections to the Old World
South America was colonized by tall pale skinned bearded people - their ancestral figure was Viracocha (meaning Thunder Lake) who was possibly the Veda ancestral figure known as Vajrapani (meaning Thunder water) They are both better known as 'The storm God' Both carry a thunderbolt in their hands and both have connections to Ra, the sun god. Viracocha is believed to have arrived from NW India in 1500BC - the time of destruction of Harappa. Vira-cocha was the father of the Peruvian people known as the Children of the Sun. It is also no coincidence that the Inca festival Inta Raymi, which celebrates the 'return of the Sun' or winter solstice festival, has many parallels with Rama the Sun God of India celebrations. Atun and Ra also go hand in hand in Egyptian mythology, and the name Atun also crops up in South America as a name for a town and a Lake. Viracocha condemned evil ways and converted hate to wisdom and tolerance - the same qualities attributed to the buddhist diety Vajrapani. Other names bely a connection to NW India, Pakistan and the Persian gulf region. Harappa people reappear as the Charapa, Karachi people reappear as Karajia, Kuros people of Harappa reappear as Uros and the Purus of the Indus reappear in Peru as Puruha. The blaustrophedon Harappa script reappears amongst the Cuna of Panama and is known as the Rongo Rongo tablets of the Charapa people of Easter Island. The birdman religion of the floating reed bed people of the Indus and Tigris Rivers arrived in Peru along with Papyrus rafts and the floating reed bed culture of Lake Titicaca and Easter Island alongside stories of the arrival of tall white bearded Viracocha and the Uros people.
Bell Beaker pottery with diamond pattern. Kuelap fortress Peru with diamond pattern.
The forts of Charchapoya with diamond motifs were once the home of tall white 'Serpent Warriors' according to Peruvian history, once again confirming a Caucasian element once existed in South America.
The Karajia clay burial sarcophagus designs have an uncanny similarity to Lapita pots found underwater off New Guinea and also bear a striking resemblance to flat faced bearded carvings still obtainable in new Guinea as souvenir items.
Karajia sarcophagus Charchapoya, compared to Tolai carving
A prominent nose is a chief characteristic of the Lapita people
The Lapita pottery on the left certainly has some unusual markings akin to an Egyptian Ankh, a Celtic cross and even hints of an Indian Swastika. If the cultural origins of this pottery design came from a culture that was a branch of the Celtic, Egyptian and Indian civilizations, it would make total sense.
Lapita pottery with Irish 4 leaf clover motif, Egyptian Ankah motif, a classic Celtic moustache, people with skirts holding hands, and what appears to be two eggs, similar to Kukul Khan (Chook King) - the Mayan ancestral figure, below. This global seafaring community certainly did do a lot of cross cultural sharing.
Kukul Khan -Mayan 'Chook King' holding two eggs. Lapita pottery with people hand in hand as in depiction above. Contemporary Indus pottery
Designs on ancient Karachi Tombs Lapita
Angularity and complexity of Lapita design -no sign of the balanced, flowing, curvaceous lines of Polynesian art.
Examples of Lapita pottery decoration; a-e; Ambitle Island, f-j; Tongatapu, k,l; Watom Island.
from; Mans Conquest of the Pacific by Peter bellwood.
Lapita pottery,Vanuatu, 1,500BC
reminiscent of the Bell Beaker
pottery of the Berbers
|Early Jomon Pottery||
Late Jomon pottery 2,500BC.
These examples clearly show that Jomon Pottery and Lapita do not have much in common. Lapita pots are never conical, they are either flat based or rounded. Lapita pots have geometric shapes, never the graceful swirls of Asian pottery.
Pottery designs from Portugal, 4. New York and 5. New Hampshire.
From 'America B.C'. by Barry Fell.
This type of pottery design was common on the shores of the Atlantic,
evidence of a seafaring culture that spanned the oceans over 3,000 years ago.
The designs we see here, must have some very important clues as to the origins of these people. There seems to be very little research done on comparing Lapita with cultures in the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic - is this another no go zone for the scientists?
Standing stones St Augustin, Columbia
Stone carving, Ra'ivavae
Some Maori assert that Guayaquil, Ecuador is their homeland. (Guayaquil and Hawaiki are linguistically similar). Ecuador and Columbia are both part of the NW coastline south of Panama.
St Augustin, Columbia Ra'ivavae
|Polynesians from Rurutu|
From the similarities in the above carvings Thor Heyerdahl suggested that a number of different groups of people entered the Pacific from America at various times. Descendants of Viracocha (children of the sun) arrived in the Marquesas and Easter Island around 300AD, with the Charapa people arrived in Easter Island a few hundred years later bringing the birdman religion and the Rongo Rongo script. At a similar time, another group arrived in Samoa from Central America, bringing with them their barbaric customs of human sacrifice and the pyramid building culture.
All this was happening in the South Pacific whilst the Polynesians led an idyllic life in Hawaii away from all this conflict for nearly 1,000 years until their voyage of discovery in their own style of catamaran - designed to handle the heavy surf conditions found in Hawai'i. The boat attributed to discovering Tahiti ('The distant land') , was Hokulea. This brought the Polynesians into contact with these southerners who used outrigger canoes, beginning a new age of cultural mixing and resultant conflicts. To begin with, they knew not the art of warfare and were preyed apon by the 'red men' who were constantly in search of new sacrificial victims to appease the gods, but this soon changed and the Polynesians soon became a formidable force in the South Pacific. Some of what happened they are not proud of and it will rarely be talked about, needless to say, by about the thirteenth Century the human sacrifice culture in the Pacific was all but destroyed and peace came once again to the idyllic isles of Polynesia. This same sort of scenario had already been enacted in the Old World where the Christian Romans brought to an end the human sacrificial ways of the Phoenicians in Carthage over 1,000 years earlier. The Romans were sick of their barbaric ways involving human sacrifices and destroyed them. Pizzaro, Balboa and Cortez were also appalled at the barbaric ways of Central and South America and also instigated cultural change - rather more rapidly than expected. Fortunately for humanity, this age of using fear to build society has ended (or has it). The age of reason is here, where people are rewarded for their work and common sense prevails (or does it).
Hopefully by studying the terrible atrocities of the past, we can avoid such barbaric behaviour in the future. We are meant to be living in a democratic world, where the people vote for their chosen leaders who are fair and honest, unfortunately this is happening less and less as greedy heartless people with money are 'buying' and corrupting governments around the world. The rich are getting greedier and the lives of the masses are becoming unbearable. As history has been known to repeat itself on numerous occasions it is not hard to predict the final outcome of the present world situation. We can look back to the French Revolution and see the heads of the greedy aristocracy rolling away from the guillotine. Or we can look to Rapa Nui where the red headed Long Ears worked the Polynesians too hard for too little reward, resulting in a retaliation that saw an end to the long Ears. The anger Chief Savea had towards the callous red heads of Samoa and their barbaric ways may also reflect the demise of the Lapita people 1,000 years earlier. Unfortunately these people with power fail to realise that it is their greed and heartlessness that is causing the unrest, not the relic minority cultures of the world who are just trying to be themselves. People like the Lenca, the Tuareg and the Tibetans are relic populations from some very important chapters in human history and we should be protecting these cultures as if they were priceless treasures from our past. These minority groups are no threat to the mega powers of the world, yet they are feared. Why? Whatever the twisted reason, these superpowers seem determined to destroy them. May compassion and tolerance prevail. Let us treasure this deep history of humanity, stop hiding it's true value and accept the interconnectedness of humanity through the ages.