The Peruvian connection
Despite what mainstream isolationists will try and tell you, the Polynesians entered the Pacific islands through two gateways; from Peru to the Marquesas/Rapa nui and from Canada to Hawaii.
Genetics indicate that the majority of Polynesians are derived from Canada and almost all Polynesians say their formative Island homeland is Hawai'i, this is certainly where they learned many of their navigational skills and also where their culture flowered, but many legends and cultural traits appear to come from elsewhere, giving them greater skills, knowledge and mana.
The following extract is from Thor Heyerdahls book "Early man and the Ocean";
"Amongst the chiefly families of New Zealand, Easter Island and the Chatham islands there is a genetically different group who are : tall, pale skinned, bearded, long headed, with a semitic nose, narrow lips and occasionally reddish brown hair with a wavy texture. The Polynesian name for families carrying this racial type are called “Urukehu' and they are said to be descended from an earlier population of blonde and fair skinned people.
Rapa Nui Moai, showing statues clothed to the neck, red tuff top knots representating red hair, extended earlobes, aquiline noses, thin lips and sharp chin, indicating a small beard. These are not the physical features of a people derived from the Pygmy highlanders of New Guinea (Bryan Sykes, Seven Daughters of Eve)- with any stretch of the imagination.
The name Uros is the name of the tribe living on the shores of Lake Titicaca. The Uros claim descent from the demi-god Viracocha, a tall white bearded man, whose sons are said to have founded the city of Tiahuanaco on the shores of Lake Titicaca. They called themselves "Children of the Sun". They live on reed mats floating in the lake, their gardens float alongside their residences. They practice the same style of swamp agriculture found in the Tigris and Indus, near the ancient city of Ur and they both make reed rafts. The Totora reed of Lake Titicaca is the very same species growing in the crater lake on Easter Island, which was also used by the islanders to make reed rafts. The god that brought the Totora reed from Lake Titicaca to Easter Island is said to be “Ure.”
Megalithic monument at the entrance to Gavea Harbour, Phoenician writing is inscribed on the rocks around the base, commerating an Egyptian King and a tunnel has been made from one ear to the other.
Apparently there was an Ancient 4000BP Phoenician port at Gavea on the East Coast of South America, probably so that trading Ships could catch the Westerlies back across to round the Cape of Good hope. From this point there are lots of Ur towns (Uratai, Uruguay, Urubamba, Uruacu, Uruana, Urubu, Urubupunga, Urucuca, Urutagua), leading up to Tin, Gold and Silver mines in the Andes.
The Tin was extremely important as it was used for making Bronze.
The Amazon river also has an island named Uratai near the mouth. Greek Genes and cultural traits amongst Amazonian tribesmen suggests that this river was also used by these ancient Bronze Age traders to get into the interior of South America.
The people of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur have in their culture, a mythical dragon, almost identical to the Taniwha. The nearby Hittites had statues with white shell eyes inlaid with obsidian. They also appear to be influenced by a similar culture to the builders of the Moai on Rapa nui. The Harrapan culture, of which remnants are still found amongst the 'The Birdmen' living on the swamps of the Indus River, was once the home of the Harrapan script, the script from which Rongo Rongo script is derived. The Birdman religion on Rapa nui has many parallels to this ancient Indian culture. Even the name for the sun (Ra) is common to both Maori and early Egyptian cultures.
1. Comparison of shell-obsidian inlaid eyes and mouth design between Rapa nui Moai and a Hittite sculpture with reported Mesopotamian and Phoenician influences.
2. Comparison between a Mesopotamian dragon and a Maori Taniwha, holder of great spiritual energy and a guardian against evil, especially when travelling. Bone carving image kindly supplied by http://boneart.co.nz/
Genetics suggest a number of different arrivals of Eastern Mediterranean genes into Central and South America at about 1200B.C. There is also an Indian input into Venezuela about 500B.C.(James L Guthrie -Human Lymphocyte Antigens, Pre-Columbiana, June 2001).
One product of this merging of cultures is the Cuna Indians who have Eastern Mediterranean as well as Dravidian genetic and cultural traits. They even have a script related to Harrapan and Rongo Rongo script. All these three scripts read in the unique manner, whereby one must turn the script upside down for each successive line. This is termed boustrophedon script. It is more than coincidence that reed rafts, the Birdman cult and boustrophedon script keep re-occurring together. These traits have been learned from one another, reinvented and then isolated in cultures living in remote areas, thus creating a slightly distorted time capsule of a culture that once existed thousands of years ago on the other side of the world.
In Central America many different cultural ideas would have coalesced, to be reinvented, in a new way, depending on what influences the group has been exposed to. The birdman cult, Taniwha, shell/obsidian inlaid eyes of statues and reed rafts eventually finding its way into the cultures along the coast of Peru. All paralleling recent genetic findings.
In his book “Early man and the Ocean”, Thor Heyerdahls, research area has uncovered some interesting information, which seems to have been ignored by the “Isolationists” amongst us:
“On Easter Island, detailed traditions insist that the islands' earliest ancestors came from the vast desert land to the East and reached their island after sailing for 60 days in the direction of the setting sun. These are the same directions given to Mendala in Peru when asking Peruvians about finding islands in the Pacific.
When Dutch explorer Roggeveen discovered the island in 1722, they recorded that amongst the first natives to come aboard their ship was “an entirely white man.” They also recorded that the Easter Islanders varied a lot in skin colour: “one finds some among them of a darker shade and others quite white, and no less also a few of a reddish tint as if somewhat severely burned by the sun.” All the early visitors also noted that some of the Easter Islanders were not only very fair and tall, but had soft, reddish hair as well.
Earliest traditions collected on Easter Island claimed that the land 60 days to the East from which their ancestors came was called the “Burial Place.” They added: “In this land, the climate was so intensely hot that people sometimes died from the affects of the heat, and at certain seasons, plants and growing things were scorched and shrivelled up by the burning sun.”
Not only does this describe the coastal plain of Peru very aptly, but the “burial place” refers to the abundant visible human remains and funeral objects that have been preserved almost indefinitely in a dry climate, without rain.
This means that modern archaeologists have direct evidence of the physical makeup of earlier inhabitants, including their hair colour, which surprisingly enough is often pale brown or red and usually wavy. They also have direct evidence that: a mummification process very similar to that used in the Middle East, was practiced by the founders of the earliest pre-inca civilization in Peru. Similar practices included: evisceration through the anus, rubbing with resinous oils, wrapping in fabric and the use of mummy masks.
Not only was mummyfication practiced in Peru, but also in many parts of Polynesia, as well as the Canary islands in the Atlantic. In Easter Island, the embalmed bodies would be placed in Tupas, which are almost identical to Peruvian Chullpas, and used for the same purpose. Apparently an Easter Islander with a sense of humour informed a scientist that Tupas were chicken houses and the skulls in them were put there to encourage the chickens to lay bigger eggs! This little pearl of wisdom now graces the pages of an authorative book on Easter Island by Paul Bahn.
Easter Island Tulpa, Peruvian Chullpa and Tibet dwelling. This style of building is attributed to the red haired people of ancient times.
Rapa nui hut, built by placing branches in holes drilled in rock (Paenga stones) and then covering with thatch. Similar holes in a rock at Yonaguni could either be from similar style huose construction or due to the closeness of the holes to the edge of the cliff (ready for cracking off the slab), suggests that the Yonaguni structure (photo Masaaki Kimura) may have been a quarry.
1. Here, the Paenga stones have been dug out and reused in the construction of a wall in the middle period of habitation on Easter Island.
2. Similar stones at Tiahuanaco have also been uncovered.
Chullpas in Peru quite commonly have red haired mummies within them.
Two royal mummy bundles strikingly similar to those of pre-Inca Tiahuanaco and woven from unidentified non-Polynesian fibres, have been discovered in a cave in Hawaii. This mummy also had a mask similar to those used in Peru. This is further proof that the American Red Heads were great oceanic explorers.
A red haired 9,000 year old Mummy found in the Nevada desert and embalmed in a similar manner to Egyptian mummies could suggest that the origin of the ancient Red
Head culture was not in the Mediterranean as many assume, but actually could have originated in America.
The "discovery" of the oldest known mummy in North America.
From Enigma 15/5/96
The mummy, named the Spirit Cave man, was found on the shelves of the Nevada State Museum. Discovered in Nevada in 1940 it was originally thought to be 2000 years old. Recent radiocarbon dating has pushed its age back to 9,400 years (7,400 BC).
The most intriguing facts is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. If these findings turn out to be true it would mean that the there were people in North America more than 9,000 years ago with the knowledge and technology to weave cloths on looms. Such a level of sophistication again pushes back the dates of early civilization and should makes us question some long held assumptions about the primitiveness of ancient people. DNA and other tests are being undertaken.
Balsa raft as seen by early Spanish explorers
In 1925, noted archaeologists J.C. Tello and S.K. Lothrop discovered two major necropolises on the Paracas peninsula of the south central coast of Peru, where several hundred carefully wrapped mummies have been preserved along side many hardwood guara (centreboards for balsa rafts). They have been carbon dated to about 300 B.C. indicating extensive maritime activity was going on at this time.
It is interesting to note that about 500B.C., the Chinese Emporer of the Ch'in Dynasty, sent out a fleet of 500 bamboo rafts in search of the elixir of eternal life, none of which returned. It is highly likely that these Chinese rafts, travelling on the Kuroshio Current, found their way down to the Ecuadorian coast, where they taught the people how to make rafts, substituting balsa logs for bamboo. The unique Chinese style of steering using multiple dagger boards instead of a steering oar, persisted in the design. The Ecuadorians became proficient sailors. They traded goods along the coastline and even ventured out to the Galapagos Islands, where Ecuadorian pottery has been found
T.D. Stewart in 1943 analysed these mummies and found the human remains of these Paracas mummies were of tall, narrow headed individuals with reddish brown and sometimes blond hair. She found the hair of two of the scalps to be “quite definitely wavy.”
Olmec stone relief of bearded seafarers
From drawings found in Mexican and Mayan art, reed rafts appear to be how these “sea foam” people arrived on the shores of Central America. The early Spanish explorers reported reed rafts sailing along the coast of Mexico.
Since the arrival of Europeans after Columbus , the Aztec and Inca nations have repeatedly described quite vividly, stories of pale skinned ancestral figures.
The Inca legend talks of a long period of primitive barbarism, which ended with the personification of the sun (Ra) on the island of Titicaca. Afterwards, they say, that there came to Cuzco from a southern direction a white man of great stature, who by his aspect and presence, called forth great veneration and obedience. In many places he gave orders to men how they should live and he spoke lovingly to them and with much gentleness, admonishing them that they should do good and no evil or injury to one another, and that they should be loving and charitable to all. In most places he is called Ticiviracocha, but he is also called Tuapaka and Arunaua in other areas. The Aztecs legend talks of Quetzalcoatl, a tall white man, with a flowing beard, clothed in a long white robe strewn with red crosses and carried a staff in his hand. He was accompanied in his travels by builders, painters, astronomers and craftsmen. He made roads, civilized the people, passing from place to place and according to some traditions, he died on the coast of the gulf of Mexico and was buried there at the seashore by his followers after they had burned his body and all his treasures.
The Mayans spoke of two distinct culture heros, Itzamna and Kukulcan (Kukul Khan), who arrived at different times, Itzamna came from the East (Mediterranean) and invented the Mayan script, he also devised their calender.
The Kukulcan, less in number, came later from the West (possibly from China). Both culture heros were bearded but the Kukulcan had shaved heads.
Kukulcan is supposed to have founded the cities of Mayapan and Chichen Itza. He taught the people to refrain from using arms, even for hunting, and under his rule, the nation enjoyed peace, prosperity and abundant harvests. Kukul Khan - or the 'Ckook King' was the bringer of agriculture and domestication of animals to Central America.
This would explain the significant Chinese influence in architecture and technology of the Mayans. With a name like Kukul Khan, how could he not be Asian.
Kukulcan or is it Kukul Khan? Olmec head displaying African features suggesting a combined cultural heritage from both Asia and Africa.
The spectacular megalithic ruins of Tiahuanaco near Lake Titicaca and Vinaque, between Cuzco and the ocean are of pre-Inca origin and are said by many to have been built by a bearded white people. Spanish chronicler, Cieza de Leon in 1553 was the first to officially report this story, then 400 years later an archaeologist Dr L. Valcarcel was also told that the bearded white culture bringers were behind the building of Tiahuanaco, Tacuma and Vinaque.
Cieza deLeon goes on to say. “The destruction of the Tiahuanaco occurred after two great war lords, one called Sapana and the other Cari. One of these chiefs entered the large island in the Lake of Titicaca and found there a white people who had beards, they fought with them in such a manner that all were killed.”
This Marks the end of the Tiahuanaco related civilization. and the rise of the warlike Moche and Nazca nations.
Wall on Rapa nui, believed to have been built around 300AD by the earliest inhabitants.
This wall is made of even sized blocks, wheras the Vinapu wall is made of interlocking
variable sized blocks. Photo from Kon Tiki Man, by Christopher Ralling.
I also found that in 1892 the Easter Island scripts were deciphered, but have been ignored. They are a detailed history of tribal conflict in South America, leading up to the exodus to Easter Island of the Ra people! They even mention which tribes were from the ancient land of Tulapin (Turtle Island/Atlantis).
On Easter Island there were two main phases of habitation. The well made stone walls of the first occupation appear to be connected to the Ra people (from Ur). These people did not arrive in Easter Island until about 300AD, therefore their ancestors spent around 2000 years in South America. There was racial mixing with the people of Tulapin and with other tribes possessing Indonesian, Taiwanese and Japanese genes. All these people would have travelled by the Kuroshio current on bamboo rafts, past Japan and across to America. Each tribe maintained a different version of culture.
Rongo rongo tablet, not exactly idle doodlings inspired by Spanish sea captains writing
reports in front of the natives, as has been suggested.
The red haired, green eyed Araucanians appear to be a remnant of the Tiahuanaco civilization. They developed into their own mixed culture south of Peru. Genetics indicate a mixture of Indonesian and Caucasian.(James L. Guthrie, 2001). The Austronesian element would have travelled from S.E. Asia, via the Kuroshio current across to Central America. The Quechuan language of Peru is 30% Austronesian, therefore this population was significant in south America. There is a possibility that the the Long Ear seafaring Ibans of Borneo, (who possibly lived on nearby Reed Tablemount) may have brought with them to South America, the Austronesian language, the practice of extending ear earlobes, blow guns, resin glazing pottery and musical instruments, such as the pan pipe, nose flute and mouth harp,(James L. Guthrie), although the flow of culture in the opposite direction via the Equatorial currents must also be considered here, especially with the pottery.
As various South American Empires expanded, these Araucanians moved further south, away from the clutches of the warlike Moche and Nazca, clinging to their Rongo Rongo scripts so eagerly destroyed by the illiterate Incas. Around the 9th century, the Huari of Peru established military power over their neighbors. By A.D.1100 the remnant population of the once great Tiahuanaco had enough and escaped by way balsa rafts. They sailed for sixty days and arrived at Te Pito O Te Kainga (meaning "The End of the World" although it is also believed by some that it means 'Naval of the World'), later renamed 'Ra-pa -nui' ("Sun-fortified village-big") by the Hawaiians. The waning population of an outpost of the earlier culture from Tiahuanaco already resided on the island since 300AD. This earlier population were most likely from the great explorer Contiki Viracocha who initially settled the Marquesas and then moved back to Rapa nui. As there are legends of thousands of pale skinned, red haired people moving through the Gilbert islands (Rosemary Grimble-Migations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert Islands) it is suspected that many of these "Children of the Sun" moved on via the Southern Equatorial current, finding their way back to N.E. Africa and eventually to the home of their ancestors.
Markings on the backs of these "The Children of the Sun" represent the sun on the horizon, the two v's below the horizon represent their conciousness of the summer/winter solstice, indicating that these people were into celestial navigation. Rapa nui is the closest island to the node delineated by; the tropic of Capricorn and one of the five 72degree nodes that the ancients divided the world into. These five nodes start at Alexandria. Another is Tonga Tapu, Gavea is close to another. The solar observatory which was moved during the building of the Aswan Dam was directly on the tropic of Cancer. Rapa iti is directly opposite Alexandria.There is certainly a lot more to the ancient civilization on Rapa nui than scientists would have us believe.
The Haamonga archway. On the top of this monument are markings
delineating the summer winter solstice, suggesting that people with a similar knowledge
to the builders of Stonehenge were responsible for the building of this - the American Red Heads (the Urekehu).
The new wave of a composite "Children of the Sun(Ra) / Harrapan Birdman culture/Indonesian" (ie; Araucanos) began the second phase of occupation of Rapa Nui about 1100A.D., bringing with them Totora rafts, the birdman cult, boustrophedon script, the art of stone carving and the practice of inlaying eyes with shell and obsidian.
From the pre-existing "Children of Ra" population on the island, they learned of the whereabouts of other outposts in central Polynesia, on; Rapa, Ra-pa-iti (Sun-fortified village-small ), Ra-ia-tea (Sun-people-white) and Ra-ro-tonga (Sun-in-south). Apon arrival they found to their surprise a composite culture dominated by the Hawai'ians, who had already assimilated with "The children of Ra". Numerous fortified hills remain to this day indicating that this absorption may not have been all that friendly.
Morongo Uta ('for peace inland') on Rapa. Although these hills look like the remnants of a fortified pallisade, underneath are well made rectangular stone buildings similar to ones found on Machu Pichu in Peru. This site is almost directly opposite Alexandria in Egypt and may have had an astronomical purpose in determining the diameter of the Earth for mapping purposes. Photo from Aku Aku by Thor Heyerdahl.
In the process of war, the once peacable Hawaiians learned complicated fighting strategies from "The children of Ra", something very evident when Europeans first met the Maoris in New Zealand 300 years ago. Many archaeologists have commented on the similarity of Neolithic fortifications in Europe to ones in Peru, New Zealand, Rapa and even Koro Island in Fiji.
The legend that Hotu Matua, a short ear Hawaiian had a dream as to the wherabouts of Rapa Nui, could be slightly modified in that a ‘little birdman' told him.
Birdman carving Birdman bead, Peru Fish Legend of Peru Alpaca head, Rapanui
What is An Easter Island birdman bead doing in Peru? Conversely, what is a carving of an Alpaca-man head and a carving depicting the legend of carrying fresh fish from the Pacific Ocean to the King in Tiahuanaco doing in a cave on Rapa nui? Why are these spirit carvings called Waco in Peru and Huaco in Polynesia - essentially the same word? Photos from Aku Aku by Thor Heyerdahl
The Hawaiians, already familiar with Ra, were quite happy to take on the new "Birdman" religion along with knowledge held by the long ears. They abandoned most of their old traditions and took on the beliefs of the long ears. They built Moai together, in memory of the long ear chiefs. The statues were erected to face the rising sun, the home of their long ear ancestors. For some reason the two groups chose to remain segregated, and lived in different parts of the island. This unwillingness to assimilate eventually led to the long ears demise. For when the population grew to the point that the island could not support the population anymore, (it is estimated the population peaked at about 8000), desperate measures came into play and they started blaming each other for the terrible predicament they were in. The long Ears ordered the Hawaiians to clear the island of all rocks so that more land could be farmed. This was an impossible task and all they managed to clear was the Poike peninsular. In 1680, 12 generations ago, it all came to a head, with a particularly dry year, there was a terrible famine, war broke out and in desperation, the long ears barricaded themselves behind a huge fire in the Poike Peninsular ditch, but the Hawaiians, on a signal given by a Hawaiian woman married to a long Ear, crept around the outer cliff edge and attacked the Long Ears from behind, driving the long ears into their own fire. They killed all but one long ear male. His name was Ororoina. His red haired genes are still visible to this day on Rapanui through twelve generations of descendants.
Archaeological diggings by Thor Heyerdahl's team revealed the story of a defence ditch with a fire in it to be correct. Here is an excerpt from his book Aku Aku:
'After a professional geologist had concluded the ditch was a natural formation, the boundary of two lava flows. The islanders were very disappointed, they were adamant that this depression had been used for defence by the long ears.
Father Sebastion a descendant Long Ear said, ”It means something personally if you will dig here.”
He almost leapt with excitement when I agreed.
The initial exploratory holes revealed in the mustard yellow earth: a broad red and black stripe around the digger, - charcoal and oxidised soil in a thick layer. There had most certainly been a great fire down in this trench.
The next morning a team of diggers set about the task to uncover the exact cross section of the ditch.
The the excavations that followed revealed the whole secret Iko's ditch on the Poike peninsular.
The topmost part of the depression was indeed merely the work of nature and followed the border of an old lava flow, but deeper down industrious men had been at work. They had hewn into the rock and constructed an artificial defence ditch with a rectangular bottom twelve feet deep, forty feet wide and nearly two miles long, Sling stones and carved wooden slabs (Rongo Rongo tablets) were found amongst the ashes.
This was most certainly the remains of Iko's ditch and the site of the final slaughter of the Long Ears. Carbon dates of the charcoal indicate the fire to be 300 years ago. But the whole elaborate defence works were built much earlier as the fire was on top of approximately two metres of infill. A small fire found at the base of the ditch was dated at 400 AD.' This is a similar date to those obtained from sites associated with the Vinapu and other Peruvian walls on the island.This indicates that they were anticipating conflict spreading to the island from the wars during the destruction of Tiahuanaco.
1. Rapa nui Long Ear, not a great deal of Asian genes in these features.
2. Rapanui images from the old stone houses of Orongo show the suns rays atop the head and tears running from the eyes, typical of images from from the pre-Inca people of Tiahuanaco, Lake Titicaca.
By 1772 the population was down to about 2000 according to Captain Roggewein. Then in 1770 Gonzalez, a Spanish explorer arrived and having heard that Roggewein suspected the Moai to be made of clay, struck at them with an axe. To the Easter Islanders, this act would have been utter sacrilege, having thought these white men were their returning ancestors, only to find them showing total disrespect for their gods. Following this there was a total collapse in the society and the Hotu-iti war raged for two years decimating the population. When Cook arrived in 1774, very few of the Moai were left standing and the people were in a desperate state. Following this, the Spanish slave traders took all but 111 islanders off to work in mines in Chile. Very few ever returned. Tahitians were brought in to repopulate the island, and the native dialect of the islanders was lost along with the meaning of the Rongo Rongo tablets.
Needless to say some of the original Easter Island genes remain in the Polynesian population in New Zealand and Tahiti. The Chatham Islanders although their racial origins also appear to be Caucasian, their features appear to be more semitic and similar to the Tasmanians, rather than Asian or Red Headed Americans. They have narrow lips, black hair and beards. They are most likely a product of people being swept across the Indian Ocean after rounding the Cape of Good Hope enroute back from South America possibly during the Bronze Age, possibly earlier. They too may play an important role in helping to unlock the mysteries of the Pacific.
Here is one piece of Maori oral history 161 generations old. This is taken from an article by Elsdon Best (1856 -1931 ); Maori tradition tells us that their ancestors in times long passed away, 161 generations ago - (approximately 1500B.C. - a time of turmoil in the Eastern mediterranean and India), migrated from a hot country named Irihia (Vrihia is an ancient name for India). The cause of exodus, from this original homeland was a disastrous war with a dark-skinned folk, in which great numbers were slain. The principle food supply on the voyage was the sapless small seed named ari - the Dravidian (Harrappan) word for rice. They crossed the oceans (Indian Ocean and Atlantic), to sojourn in two lands, named Tawhiti-roa (distant long land – Central America) and Tawhiti-nui (distant big land - Peru), after which they entered the isles of Polynesia.
This legend does not mention any large oceanic voyage between Tawhiti-roa and Tawhiti-nui, therefore the Central America - South America scenario fits quite well. The mention of their enemies being dark-skinned folk, infers that this branch of the Polynesians were pale skinned. From India around the Cape of Good Hope, across the Atlantic and into the central Pacific are all downwind, down current voyages. This makes perfect sense for a group of people intending to leave their homeland permanently, trying to put as much distance between themselves and their enemies - 'Let the wind take us to a new homeland'.
Harrapan engraving. Birds had great spiritual significance for the Papyrus raft people, they were used for navigation.
Polynesians still use birds for navigation, by watching where they come from in the morning and where they fly to at sunset.