Pathways into Polynesia

Fijian Drua, from Kabara

The nature of Ancient Oceanic travel

When early man decided to take to the ocean, his chosen craft would not have been very controllable or fast. As long as he stayed afloat, he would have gone where the wind and ocean currents took him. He would have gone with the flow, confident that there was another distant shore awaiting them.

To look in the right places for evidence of trans oceanic cultural influence, we need to understand the prevailing ocean currents and seasonal wind directions and how they may have influenced the movement of man across the oceans.

Many modern scholars have, grossly underestimated the possibility of early man surviving at sea for a period of months.

When discussing the possibility of survival at sea during a drift or semi drift voyage, one must consider the following:

Thor Heyerdahl in 'Early Man and the Ocean' p31-37;

"1.  A watertight hull is not the only, nor is it the best solution for security at sea. A wash-through raft made from Papyrus, Bamboo or Balsa cannot be swamped or holed and is very difficult to capsize.       

2. Safety at sea does not increase with the size of the vessel nor with the height of its deck above sea level. Boats around 30 feet in length have a greater chance of survival at sea as they are able to move freely between and over swells without putting undue stress on the hull. Larger vessels tend to bury their bow and stern into surrounding waves, risking swamping, capsize and breaking amidships.  

3. Hugging the coastline is far more dangerous than crossing the open ocean. Waves rising over shallow ground, being deflected off cliffs, tidal races, rock outcrops and reefs occur along coastlines, but not in the open ocean.

4. The logical conclusion that the distance from A to B equals the distance from B to A does not hold true at sea. Ocean currents and prevailing winds acting favourably on a slow moving raft can reduce the effective distance to 1/4 of the actual distance. For example, Thor Heyerdahl, in the Con-Tiki expedition when travelling the 4000 miles from Peru to the Tuamotus, only travelled 1000 miles of ocean surface. Conversely, if Thor had tried to sail back to Peru, he would have had to travel an effective distance of 7000 miles against the current.

5.When looking at a Mercator projection map, the straightline distance across the ocean is not necessarily the shortest distance. The world is a sphere and therefore the shortest distance between places is the great circle route. Interestingly the Kuroshio current of the North Pacific, follows the great circle route from Taiwan all the way to central America."

6. The necessity to store many months of provisions on a drifting craft is not necessary for survival, as a slow moving craft creates its own ecosystem on and beneath the hull. Seaweed, crabs and barnacles would provide birds and fish with food and the craft's rigging would provide a resting place for weary birds. The craft's shadow would also provide a place for small fish to hide from larger predators. Not only this, but fish and bird life back then would have been far more abundant. For the skilled hunter, the boat was in effect a floating larder.

The Polynesian tradition of wearing a fishook pendant to ensure the wearer shall never go hungry, would certainly have held particular significance on these long oceanic voyages.

Water would have been brought on board in either pottery or gourd water containers and if travelling in tropical regions, coconuts would also have been used. The isotonic fluids in the raw fish and seaweed would have provided supplementary fluid for survival between the occasional rainstorm.

Once we have ascertained our physical environment and its limitations, the next step is to determine if there is any hard scientific evidence linking particular cultures at opposite ends of these "Rivers of the Ocean".

Genetics seems to be able to show us, not only relationships between cultures, but how long ago there were such relationships. This is a powerful tool in determining the movements of early migrations around the planet.

Pathways suggested by genetic similarities

Geneticists, Manfred Kayser, Silke Brauer, Gunter Weiss, Peter A. Underhill, Lutz Rower, Wulf Schiefenhovel and Mark Stoneking: found that "Polynesians do share an ancient common ancestor with the Melanesians - individuals carrying the DYS390.3 deletion on the RPS4Y711T haplotype, shows the time back to the most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 11,500 years, but since then, they have evolved quite separately."

The following genes set them apart:

S.W. Serjeantson "The Colonization of the Pacific, A Genetic Trail 1989; found that "HLA-B27 is totally absent from Eastern Polynesians, wheras it is common amongst Melanesians."

Bing Su et al, University of Texas found that "the major Melanesian Y-chromosomal haplotype (H17, characterised by mutations at M4, M5 and M9) was not found in Polynesia."

"HLA genes in Polynesia appear to show Asian rather than Melanesian origin. For example, a particular allele, HLA DRB1-0901, was observed at high frequency in Polynesians, a moderate frequency in mainland Asia, but was rare in Melanesian populations.

There does appear to be some Melanesian/Polynesian admixture in areas such as Fiji, Tonga, Samoa and Polynesian outliers, but this has occurred less than 1,500 years ago.

Although Polynesian genes are very similar to Taiwanese genes, the Taiwanese aboriginal people carried a different set of markers to either the Polynesians or the Micronesians, indicating a divergence and expansion in the populations about 6000 years ago.

This is in perfect agreement with archaeological and linguistic data, which suggest that the Polynesians left the Taiwan area about 6,000 years ago, prior to mongoloid expansion. Reduced genetic diversity in Polynesians has also been reported for many other genetic markers, indicating two genetic bottlenecks, one 6000 years ago, with another one 2,200 years ago, which is associated with a rapid population growth – this is the time they arrived in Polynesia."

S.W. Serjeantson "The Colonization of the Pacific, A Genetic Trail "HLA-Bw48 is commonly found in Polynesian populations, but is absent in Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of Bw48 is the Tlingit, Haida and Kwakuitl along the coast of Canada and Alaska. In Polynesia Bw48 co-occurs with A11." This indicates a variation since Polynesians departed Canada. Therefore it seems quite obvious that Proto-Polynesians spent 4000 years living along the coasts of Alaska and Canada, before arriving in Polynesia 2,200 years ago. Canada is the only region on the Pacific rim where tribes share the same cultural and technological characteristics as the Polynesians. Geographically, Hawaii is in a perfect position for recieving wayward travellers from Canada. Similarities in stone artifacts between Canada and Hawaii help confirm this connection.

From these findings, there can be no doubt that the Kuroshio current played a big part in Polynesias pre-history, and that somewhere near to the island of Haida gwai'i, Canada, was the homeland of the Hawai'ians.

Ancient legends

A Tlingit legend very aptly describes how the first ancestral Polynesians came to Canada:

"There is an old story that says how some strange people came from the western ocean. Among them were two sisters. They landed on Dall Island in Southeastern Alaska. There the sisters met and married men whose people were coming down the rivers from interior North America. One sister-went with her family to Haida-gwaii or the Queen Charlotte Islands. Her children grew and multiplied into the Haida Nation. The other sister went with her family to Prince of Wales Island. She became the ancestress or Mother of the Tlingit Nation." (The Proud Chilkat by Brendan and Lauri Larson. 1977.)


Here is a Hawaiian legend that describes something similar to this:

The Ancient History of Hookumu Ka Lani & Hookumu Ka Honua by Solomon L.K. Peleioholani.

"The ancestors of the Hawaiian race came not from the islands the South Pacific – for the immigrants from that direction were late arrivals there. – but from the northern direction (welau lani), that is, from the land of Kalonakikeke, now known as Alaska.

According to this tradition, a great flood that occurred during the reign of Kahiko- Luamea on the continent of Ka-Houpo-o-Kane, (The Bosom of Kane) and carried away a floating log of wood named Konikonihia. On this log was a precious human cargo and it came to rest on the land of Kalonakikeke (Alaska).  

On this log was the first man and woman who came to Kalonakikeke from the continent of Ka-Houpo-o-Kane, they were Kalonakiko-ke ("Mr Alaska") and his wife Hoomoe-a-pule ("Woman of my dreams"). They were said to both be high chiefs of the countries of Kanaka-Hikina (person of the east) and Kanaka-Komohana (person of the west) and were descended from the great great ancestor Huka-ohialaka.

Many generations later, Chief Nuu, travelled with his wife, Lilinoe, their three sons and their three wives in a canoe called Ka-Waa-Halau-Alii-O-Ka-Moku (the royal canoe of the continent), and it rested apon Mauna Kea (white mountain), on the island of Hawaii.They were the first Hawaiians.

According to Hawaiian genealogies, Chief Nuu lived approximately 2,200 years ago. His complete family tree lives on to this day in the chiefly families of Hawaii, such as the Kekoolani Family.

Solomon L.K.Peleioholani was considered an important Hawaiian antiquarian, and the final word in Hawaiian genealogy, especially of the chiefs and royal familes. He was a High Chief,   and in many ways both the pinnacle and terminus of the old royal blood lines from Maui, Oahu, Hawaii, and Kauai. His grandparents were among those who sided with Kamehameha the Conqueror to achieve unity of the islands. His father was an uncle to the Kings Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V and he was himself one of the highest ranking chiefs in the Hawaiian Islands."

Information kindly provided by “The Kekoolani Family Trust of Waipio Valley, Hamakua, Hawaii”.

This vital historical information along with the above genetic data shows that Hawaii must have been the gateway into Polynesia and was the crucible where the essence of of Polynesian society was formed.

The northern arm of the North Pacific Current goes to Alaska, whereas the southern arm travels

down the Californian coast and eventually out to Hawaii.

The Southern Equatorial Current flows out from Peru and Panama, directly into the the heart of Melanesia, bypassing most South Pacific islands.

Also note that Hawaii and the Taiwan banks are at the same lattitude. According to some legends, the Hawaiians thought they had actually sailed back to Ka-Houpo-o-Kane only to find it had "drifted apart" during their 4,000 year absence. There is even a legend whereby they attempted to tow the islands back together. The Hawaiians were able to accurately plot lattitude from the stars, but had no way of determining longitude, therefore their belief that they were back in their ancestral homeland was a totally locical mistake.

Analysis of the legend

According to the above legend, the “Bosom of Kane” was another continent, and from there, they arrived in Alaska. We must first look at the ocean currents of the North Pacific Ocean, which clearly shows the current which sweeps past Alaska, coming directly from the Taiwan area.

Is it possible that they travelled all that way on a floating log of wood named Konikonihia ? The log could also infer the trunk of the family tree, (legends from S.E. Asia, often relate parts of the family tree to an actual tree). Bamboo rafts were a common means of transport around that time and are an alternative to the floating log of wood scenario. Both the Tlingit legend and the Hawaiian legend, appear to indicate that the significant gene pool arriving from over the western ocean was female. Both legends also indicate the male line was from Alaska.

The specific name of chief Nuu is from both Hawaiian family genealogies as well as ancient Hawaiian historical stories. Although the language of the Nuu-cha-tha (Nootka) tribe of Vancouver Island is different today, there is possibly a cultural link between Chief Nuu and these people.

Their arrival on Mauna Kea (white mountain) indicates they must have arrived in late winter or in spring time, to actually witness the snow.

Snow covered Mauna Kea. A view similar to this would have greeted

Chief Nuu and his family.

Hawaii our Homeland

The arrival in Hawaii would be something like this; as they approach the coast, below Mauna Kea, a large wave rears up from behind interrupting their singing, they start paddling frantically and the boat is picked up by a large wave and they surf towards the beach, the boat goes into a spectacular nose-dive and they end up in the surf. They clamber ashore unperturbed by their spectacular wipeout and are filled with the excitement of the occasion of arriving in a new land. Their joy overwhelms the scene.

After many days of exploration, including hiking to the top of the volcano through the snow, they soon realize that the island has never seen humans prior to their arrival. They are in awe of the molten lava oozing across the landscape. The whole scene of nature is totally exhilarating. Iinquisitive fish swim up to their hands and they tickle their tummies. The birds fly down and land on their knees as if to welcome them to their new home. Flowers and giant leaves in the forest have them captivated. Dew on moss covered logs sparkles in the sun. They are in a garden of Eden.

With only a small group as described in the legend, the sheer survival depended on rapid population growth, which is confirmed by genetics, therefore promiscuity was encouraged and was a critical part of their survival on these isolated islands. Sexually provocative dancing was developed, often resulting with the lead couple copulating on the dance floor.

After 300 years the population on Hawaii was beginning to overflow and a desire to find new land became an important issue. According to Dean Kekoolani's family genealogy, Queen Papa and Wakea lived around 150 –200A.D. Wakea and his wife Queen Papa began a quest of discovery spurred on by relationship troubles. Apparently Queen Papa caught Wakea with another woman, and so she left in a rage - with another man and they traveled by canoe to Molokai and started another family. A few years later, Wakea traveled to Molokai to see Queen Papa and they got back together. They left Molokai together and discovered Oahu and then Kauai.

The legend of Maui-a-Kalana describes that 24 generations ago (around 800A.D.) Maui tried to tow the islands of Hawaii back together; Maui was out for an exhilarating sail to a neighbouring island. He is trolling and snags the bottom - with a strong tidal current running and with the stretch of the line, it appears that he is towing the island behind them. They quickly decide that it is an omen from the gods, and it is now their mission to tow the islands back together. Maui tells the others not to look back, as it would ruin the magic. One of the younger brothers is emptying the bailer, it catches on some seaweed, it is torn from his grip. the other brother sees the brown bailer and weed out of the corner of his eye and thinks it is the shoulder and hair of a wahine swimming. He inadvertently turns to take a second look. As soon as he looks back, the line breaks and he is admonished for ruining the magic.

Maui had heard how their founding ancestors had once set off in search of their old homeland of “Ka-Haupo-o-Kane” from Alaska by following the latitude of Plaides - the lattitude of Taiwan and Yonaguni. As a result they ended up in Hawaii, which they assumed Hawaii was their old homeland and that had since broken up into islands. Little did they know they hadn't sailed far enough, they were a long way short of their intended destination.

Their sureness that their homeland would be once again out of the water, was because in Alaska, over a period of 4,000 years they had observed dropping sealevels (rising land due to isostatic rebound), so they suspected that the floods had receded and that their homeland would be habitable once again. Therefore they assumed their homeland must have broken up and drifted apart.

Hawaiian wood carving compared to megalithic monument, Yonaguni.

This Taiwanese carving on Yami island, appears to mirror the Hawaiian war god Ku.

Is this traditional figure from ancient times, or is it the product of Hawaiian expansion in the 11th-13th centuries?

By 600 A.D., The population was getting out of hand, as the policy of procreate, procreate, procreate was not appropriate anymore. The population was becoming a burden on the islands recources, so an exploration was mounted in search of new land. One group travelled south and made landfall on a 'Distant Land', they named this island 'Tawhiti' and they found nearby on Ra-ia-tea (Sun-people-white) a group of white people who worshipped the sun. on their return journey, in an effort to make as much ground to windward, so as not to miss Hawaii, they travelled North East and came across another group of low islands, which they called Tua-motu (back and off to the side-islands), their return journey was greeted with much jubilation and further voyages followed.

Further exploration led them to Whiti (crossover - of a cultural kind), where they found a different breed of people with dark skin and frizzy hair. Tonga-tapu was the centre for battles between this cultural boundary and was called south-forbidden as a warning to venturesome seafarers.

Further explorations led them to Ra-ro-tonga (Sun in the South), Ra-eva-vae and Ra-pa (Sun village) and eventually to Ra-pa-nui (Sun village big) where they met more sun Worshippers.

Rapa is almost directly opposite Alexandria in Egypt and could possibly hold some significance for ancient map makers and astronomers of ancient times. Raevavae is almost on the Tropic of Capricorn and therefore may also have been of some significance to ancient astronomers.

As the Quechua language of Peru is 30% Austronesian, it is highly likely that the white skinned red heads from Peru spoke a similar language to the Hawaiians and therefore despite the Peruvian's adoption of  the Egyptian sun worshipping religion, they both realised that they had a common connection in the distant past and were happy to assimilate with each other. Unfortunately the pale skinned red heads were mostly Rhesus negative, which proved fatal for all but the first born babies with a rhesus positive father - of which all the Hawaiians were. Not only this, but blonde/red hair and blue eyes are both recessive genes, therefore as time progressed fewer and fewer pale skinned red heads survived. Their affection for these people is seen in the tradition of brides hiding from the sun before their wedding day, so that their skin is as pale as possible.

Hawai‘iloa and the Discovery of Hawai‘i

Samuel M. Kamakau and Z. Kepelino, rrom Fornander, Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-lore, Vol. VI (Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1916-1917) 

The Discovery and Settlement of Hawai‘i

Hawai‘i Loa, or Ke Kowa i Hawai‘i, was one of the four children of Aniani Ka Lani.1 The other three were Ki, who settled in Tahiti, Kana Loa, who settled the Marquesas, and Laa-Kapu. The ocean was called Kai Holo-o-ka-I‘a (Ocean where the fish run). Only two islands existed and both were discovered and settled by Hawai‘i Loa. The first he named Hawai‘i after himself; the second Maui, after his eldest son. (The other islands were created by volcanoes during and after the time of Hawai‘i Loa. [See note 5.]

Hawai‘i Loa and his brothers were born on the east coast of a land called Ka ‘Aina kai melemele a Kane (the land of the yellow or handsome sea of Kane).2 Hawai‘i Loa was a distinguished man and noted for his fishing excursions which would occupy months, sometimes the whole year, during which time he would roam about the ocean in his big canoe (wa‘a), called also an “island” (moku), with his crew and his officers and navigators (poe ho‘okele and kilo-hoku).

One time when they had been at sea for a long time, Makali‘i, the principal navigator said to Hawai‘i Loa, “Let’s steer the canoe in the direction of Iao, the Eastern Star, the discoverer of land [Hoku hikina kiu o na ‘aina]. There is land to the eastward, and here is a red star, hoku ‘ula (Aldebaran), to guide us, and the land is there in the direction of those big stars which resemble a bird.” And the red star, situated in the lap of the goats [a constellation], was called Makali‘i after the navigator. Some other red stars in the circle of the Pleiades were called the Huhui-a-Makali‘i (“Cluster of Makali‘i”).

So they steered straight onward and arrived at the easternmost island of the Hawaiian chain.3 They went ashore and found the land fertile and pleasant, filled with ‘awa, coconut trees, and so on, and Hawai‘i Loa, the chief, gave that land his name. Here they dwelt a long time and when their canoe was filled with vegetable food and fish, they returned to their native country with the intention of returning to Hawai‘i-nei, which they preferred to their own country. They had left their wives and children at home; therefore, they returned to get them. When Hawai‘i Loa and his men arrived at their own country and among their relatives, they were detained a long time before they set out again for Hawai‘i.

At last Hawai‘i Loa sailed again, accompanied by his wife and his children. He settled in Hawai‘i and gave up all thought of ever returning to his native land. He was accompanied on this voyage by a great crowd of men, steersmen, navigators, shipbuilders, and others.4 Hawai‘i Loa was chief of all these men. He alone brought his wife and children; all the others came singly, without women, so he was the progenitor of this nation. On their voyage here, the Morning Star (ka Hoku Loa) was the special star the y steered by. And Hawai‘i Loa called the islands after the names of his children and the stars after his navigators and steersmen. [The island of Maui was called after Hawai‘i Loa’s first born son. The island of O‘ahu was called after Hawai‘i Loa’s daughter, and her foster parent was Lua, and hence the name O‘ahu-a-Lua. Kaua‘i was called after Hawai‘i Loa’s younger son; his wife’s name was Waialeale, and they lived on Kaua‘i, and the mountain was called after her because there she was buried. And thus oth er islands and districts were called after the first settlers.]5

After Hawai‘i Loa had been some time in Hawai‘i-nei, he made another voyage to find his brothers to see if they had any children who might become husbands or wives to his own. They left from Lae o Kalae, in Ka‘u, and followed the stars Ke Ali‘i-o-Kona-i-k a-Lewa [Canopus] and the stars of Hoku-kea o ka Mole Honua [“Star-cross of the bottom of the earth,” or Southern Cross] to Tahiti and other islands to the south. On Tahiti, he found his brother Ki who had settled there and called the island after one of his own names. They sailed together southward (i ka mole o ka honua), and found an uninhabited island, which Hawai‘i Loa gave his name, and another smaller island, which he named for his daughter O‘ahu.

When they had finished their business here, they returned to Hawai‘i, to Lae o Kalae, steering by the Hoku-‘Iwa stars and the Hoku Poho ka ‘Aina. On this return voyage, Hawai‘i Loa brought Tu-nui-ai-a-te-Atua, the first born son of his brother Ki, who bec ame the husband of Hawai‘i Loa’s favorite daughter O‘ahu. The couple had a child called Kunuiakea, who was born at Keauhou in Puna, Hawai‘i. Puna was a fertile and fine land and it was called Puna by Kunuiaiakeakua [Tu-nui-ai-a-te-Atua] after his own birt hplace, Puna-Auia, in Tahiti.

Kunuiakea, on both father’s and mother’s side, became a chief of the very highest rank (kapu loa). From him sprang the race of chiefs here in Hawai‘i (welo ali‘i) and from Makali‘i sprang the race of common people (welo kanaka). The first has been kept se parate from the most ancient times, and the second has been kept separate from the time of chaos (mai ka Po mai). But the priestly race (welo kahuna) was one and the same with the race of chiefs from the beginning.6

Hawai‘i Loa’s Descendants

Kunuiakea’s son Ke Lii Alia, and his grandson Kemilia, were born at Tahiti along with the Aoa, the royal tree; but his great grandson, Ke Lii Ku (Eleeleualani), was born on Hawai‘i.

Eleeleualani was the grandfather of Papa-Nui-Hanau-Moku (w). His wife was called Ka Oupe Ali‘i and was a daughter of Kupukupunuu from Ololoimehani (supposed to be either a name for the island of Nu‘uhiwa, or of a place on that island). They had a son call ed Kukalani‘ehu, whose wife was Ka Haka-ua-Koko, the sixth descendant from Makali‘i, and they two were the parents of Papa-Nui (w).

Papa-Nui-Hanau-Moku (w) first married Wakea, who was the son of Kahiko (k) and Tupu-rana-i-te-hau (w), who was a Tahitian woman. Papa’s first child with Wakea was a daughter called Hoohokukalani.

Papa, having quarreled with Wakea on account of their daughter [i.e., Wakea slept with their daughter], went to Tahiti and there she took to Te Rii Fanau for husband and had a son called Te Rii i te Haupoipoi. She afterwards returned to Hawai‘i under the name of Huhune and had a son with Waia and called him Hinanalo. Domestic troubles now made her crazy and she returned to Tahiti where she had another son with Te Ari‘i Aumai, who was said to be the fourth generation of the Tahiti chiefs, and she called hi s name Te Ari‘i Taria, and he became chief over that part of Tahiti called Taharu‘u.

Because she was the mother of chiefs, both here and in Tahiti, she is called Papa Nui Hanau Moku [“Great Papa, the Mother of Islands”]. She is said to have been a comely, handsome woman, very fair and almost white.7

Papa is said to have traveled eight times between Tahiti and Hawai‘i, and died in a place called Waieri, in Tahiti, during the time of Nanakelihi the fifth descendant from her and Wakea.

Wakea was a wicked and bad man. He instituted the bad and oppressive kapu, such as that men and women could not eat together; that women could not eat red fish, hogs, fowl or other birds, and some kinds of bananas. These kapu were put on to spite and worry Papa, on account of her growling at and reproaching him for his wickedness. Wakea also departed from the ancient worship and introduced idol worship, and many people followed him, because they were afraid of him.

Other Travels of Hawai‘i Loa

Hawai‘i Loa was born on the eastern shore of the land of Kapakapaua-a-Kane. One of Hawai‘i Loa’s grandchildren was called Keaka-i-Lalo (w) whom he married to Te Ari‘i Aria, one of his brother Ki’s grandchildren, and he placed them at Sawai‘i [Samoa?], whe re they became the ancestors of that people, Sawai‘i being then called Hawai‘i-ku-lalo [Hawai‘i rising downwind].

Afterwards Hawai‘i Loa revisited Tahiti and found that his brother Ki had forsaken the religion in which they were brought up, that of Kane, Ku and Lono, and adopted Ku-waha-ilo [maggot-mouthed Ku], the man-eating God (ke akua ‘ai kanaka), as his God. Aft er quarreling with his brother on this account, Hawai‘i Loa left Tahiti and brought with him Te Ari‘i Apa as a husband for Eleeleualani, his mo‘opuna (grandchild) From these two was born Kohala (w), a girl, from whom the Kohala people sprang.

Afterwards Hawai‘i Loa went again to Tahiti and Hawai‘i-ku-lalo (Sawai‘i) and held a meeting with those peoples at Tarawao, but finding that they persisted in following after the God Ku-waha-ilo and that they had become addicted to man-eating, he reproved and repudiated them, and passed a law called “he Papa Enaena,” forbidding anyone from Hawai‘i-Luna (upwind Hawai‘i) from ever going to the southern islands, lest they should go astray in their religion and become man-eaters.

When Hawai‘i Loa returned from this trip he brought with him Te Ari‘i Tino Rua (w) to be a wife to Kunuiakea, and they begat Ke Ali‘i Maewa Lani, a son, who was born at Holio in North Kona, Hawai‘i, and became the Kona progenitor.

After this Hawai‘i Loa made a voyage to the westward, and Mulehu (Hoku Loa) was his guiding star. He landed on the eastern shore of the land of the Lahui-makalilio (the people with the turned up, oblique eyes, i.e., Asians). He traveled over it to the nor thward and to the westward to the land of Kuahewahewa-a-Kane, one of the continents that God created, and thence he returned, by the way he had come, to Hawai‘i nei, bringing with him some white men (po‘e keokeo kane) and married them to native women (a h o‘omoe i ko‘onei po‘e wahine). On this return voyage the star Iao was his guiding star to Hawai‘i.

After this Hawai‘i Loa made another voyage to the southern and eastern shore of Kapakapaua-a-Kane and took with him his grandchild Kunuiakea in order to teach him navigation, etc. When they had stayed there long enough they returned and Kunuiakea brought with him “he mau ha‘a elua” (two stewards), one called Lehua and the other Nihoa, and they were settled on the two islands which bear their names, as konohiki (land stewards) and put under the charge of Kaua‘i, the youngest son of Hawai‘i Loa.

When Hawai‘i Loa returned from the conference with his brother Ki and his descendants, his wife Hualalai bore him a son who was called Hamakua, and who probably was a bad boy (keiki ‘ino‘ino), for so his name would indicate. Ten years later, Hualalai died and was buried on the mountain of Hawai‘i that has been called after her name ever since.

After Hawai‘i Loa was dead and gone, in the time of Kunuiakea, came Tahitinui from Tahiti and landed at Ka-lae-i-Kahiki (the southwest point of Kaho‘olawe, a cape often made by people coming from or going to Tahiti.) Tahiti-nui was a mo‘opuna of Ki, Hawai ‘i Loa’s brother, and he settled on East Maui and died there.

The descendants of Hawai‘i Loa and also of Ki (which are one, for they were brothers) peopled nearly all the Polynesian islands. From Ki came the people of Tahiti, Borabora, Huahine, Taha‘a, Ra‘iatea and Mo‘orea [the Society Islands].

From Kanaloa [brother of Hawai‘i Loa] were peopled Nukuhiwa, Uapou, Tahuata, Hiwaoa and those other islands [the Marquesas Islands]. Kanaloa married a woman from the man-eating people, Taeohae [Taiohae, on Nukuhiwa], from whom spring those cannibals who l ive on Nukuhiwa, Fiji, Tarapara, Paumotu [the Tuamotus], and the islands in western Polynesia--so is it reported in the Hawaiian legends and prayers--but the people of Hawai‘i and the Tahiti (properly speaking) did never addict themselves to cannibalism.


This English version of the Hawai‘i Loa story is from Fornander, Vol. VI, 278-281. Another version entitled “Hawaii-nui,” in Hawaiian and English, appears in Kepelino’s Traditions of Hawaii (Honolulu: Bishop Museum, 1932, 74-77).

The legend seems to be a summary of statements contained in many other Hawaiian legends and genealogies. At the time it was recorded in writing, many Hawaiian had become Christianized and were familiar with Biblical history. The temptation to interpret certain incidents similar to those in Biblical history as being in fact the Hawaiian rendering of Biblical events seems to have influenced the translators.

Randie Fong notes “the Hawai‘ii Loa portion [of the tradition of Hawai‘i Loa] bears no resemblance to any Biblical account. The names, places, settings, and plots give us no reason to question their age and authenticity. Further, Patience Bacon of the Bis hop Museum remembers kupuna being interviewed by Tutu Puku‘i. The kupuna spoke of Hawai‘i Loa as their ‘reality,‘ and this was somewhere in the 1920’s and 30’s. Mrs. Bacon feels that the tradition is sound.”

Cartwright points out, however, that “many of the persons mentioned [in the genealogy] are and have been accepted by Hawaiians of chieftain rank as their ancestors.” He concludes that the tradition is authentic.

1. The story begins with the genealogy of Hawai‘i Loa for many generations, from the first man, Kumu Honua, and his wife Lalo Honua, who lived in a land called Kalana i Hauola, down to Aniani Ka Lani, Hawai‘i Loa’s father and Ka Mee Nui Hikina, his mother.

2. Kepelino’s version: Hawai‘i-nui sailed from a land called Kahiki-Honua-Kele.

3. Kepelino’s version states that the canoe made landfall at the western end of the archipelago: “First he saw the island of Kaua‘i, but he kept on sailing and found O‘ahu and then the islands of the Maui group, then, seeing the mountains of Hawai‘i, he kept on until he reached that island. There he lived and named the island after himself. The other islands from Maui to Kaua‘i were named for his children and for some who sailed with him. Here are the names of this children: Maui was the eldest, O‘ahu yo unger, and Kaua‘i the youngest. These names he gave to the three large islands, but the smaller islands were perhaps named for those who accompanied him.”

4. Kepelino’s version: Hawai‘i-nui sailed to Hawai‘i with his eight steersmen: Here are their names: Makali‘i, a famous steersman and great farmer; Iao; Kahiki-Nui; Hoku ‘Ula [perhaps the star Aldebaran]; Maiao; Kiopa‘a [“fixed,” one name for Polaris, the north star; also called Hokupa‘a]; Unulau; Polohilani [perhaps the star Schedir in Cassiopeia]. And because of their skill in observing the stars, each one called the star he observed after his own name. One steersman, Kahiki-Nui, has a land district on Maui named after him.

5. Another passage in Fornander says “When Hawai‘i Loa arrived here, there were only the two islands of Hawai‘i-Loa and Maui-au-Ali‘i; but during his time and close afterwards the volcanoes on Hawai‘i and on Maui began their eruptions; and earthquakes and convulsions produced or brought to light the other islands” (279).

6. Earlier in the story we are told that only Hawai‘i Loa came with a wife and children so he was “the special progenitor of this nation” (278). Kepelino concludes, “Hawai‘i-nui was perhaps a chief or perhaps not; he was a man of high standing (ke kanaka ko‘iko‘i), as I see it. He had a granddaughter Ku-ka-lani-ehu, who lived in ancient times.” A note at the end of the Fornander version states, “In the first age, from Hawai‘i Loa to Wakea, the royal authority and prerogative were not very well defined. The chiefs were regarded more in the light of parents and patrons (haku), than as moi and ali‘i-kapu, although they enjoyed all the honor and precedence due to their rank. This state of things was considerably altered by Wakea, his priest and successors, yet even so late as the time of Kanipahu, who refused the government, it is evident that the royal authority was not well settled in the olden times (‘aole he ano nui o na ali‘i i ka wa kahiko loa ‘ku)” (281).

7. See Kamakau, Tales and Traditions (133-135) for one version of the story of Papa and Wakea. Papa and Wakea are considered by many as the first female and male ancestors of the Hawaiian people: “Wakea, from whom all Hawaiian genealogies stem as the anc estors of the Hawaiian people, ‘both chiefs and commoners,‘ is regarded as a man in Hawaiian tradition, not as a god as in southern groups [of Polynesia]” (Beckwith 294).

For those of you who thought that Hawaii was colonised 700 years ago, this archaeological data may come as a bit of a shock. People have been living in Hawaii for at least three thousand years!

As the prehistory of the Pacific is consistently being misinterpreted, we need to take a closer look at this paper. Ignore the fact that they try and dismiss these early dates being from people lighting fires using wood that is 3,000 years old (yeah, right). Instead look at the evidence for extensive and widespread settlement even in unfavourable locations, with no studies done on the Waipio valley - a site known to be an important one. The settlement of Hawaii according to info in this paper is around 3,200 years ago. There are bound to be numerous archaeological sites below sea level as the Hawaiian islands are sinking at the rate of about 2 metres every thousand years. As they say; 'absence of evidence is not evidence of absence' The above archaeologists have but merely scratched the surface - yet the Chronometric hygienists are trying to sweep many of these early dates under the carpet by using Bayesian statistical methods (deleting outlier results) - which is clearly not an appropriate technique when dealing with information coming from rare, hard to find ancient archaeological sites. In some cases they have deleted 95% of dates from early sites - this is akin to the Nazis burning books!


Discovery of Tahiti (the distant land), from Hawaii (the homeland)

This is a chant shown to me by Berni Paik-Apau - it is an account of the Hawai'ians first meeting with the people of Tahiti. 
You cannot imagine how excited I was to read this chant - it explains the ancestry of the people in the above images.
The mention of Olopana in the chant helps confirm that the chant is about Tahiti and not some other distant land.
This chant shows that when the Polynesians first arrived in Tahiti, the people were different and the Hawaiians upon arriving there, were very surprised to see them. It says in the chant that the people in Tahiti spoke a different language and they were pale skinned and 'god like' - suggesting they had religious rituals that elevated their mana. It also says that there was only one type of person there - not a mixed group - which excludes the possibility that there were Melanesians or Lapita people there. 
I have always believed that the Eastern Polynesian have a dual origin - one group from East Asia via Hawaii (Hawaiiloa oral history) and the other golden haired people from Peru, but I always wondered how, when and where these two groups first met. This chant shows exactly how it happened. It also indicates that before they voyaged to Tahiti, they had already met with Olopana who had voyaged up to Hawai'i. Olopana was a white man according to other oral histories. Possibly Olopana told them how to find Tahiti.

The chant helps fill in a few gaps with regard to a duality of origin of the Polynesian people - that is Hawai'i loa's people (black hair, olive skin and brown eyes) coming from East Asia (as per DNA evidence) and the red haired Polynesians - Olopana, Lono/Orongo and Tangaroa all coming from Peru via Rapanui and Tahiti (white skin, golden hair and green eyes). The red haired DNA is recessive, so it all but disappeared, yet their culture contributed significantly to the Eastern Polynesian culture. When Wallace first visited Tahiti 20% of the population had golden hair and pale skin and they saw a pyramid called Maha-ia-tea (many people white). When they returned two years later, the people were gone and the pyramid destroyed.
Imagine when the Hawaiians first visited Tahiti - when it was a very different place, when the people there were similar to the tall lanky redheads of Rapanui, the redhaired Araucano, the blonde people of Charchapoya, or Paracas redheads of Peru, following different gods and speaking a language they brought from Peru, Colombia or Ecuador – they would have been very surprised to see these unusual people in Tahiti.

Anyway this is the chant - decide for yourself;
Kahiki, moku kai a loa. 
O Kahiki, land of the far-reaching ocean,
Aina a Olopatia noho ai.
Land where Olopana dwelt.
I loko ka moku, I waho ka la; 
Within is the land, outside is the sun;
Ke aloalo o ka la ke hiki mai.
Indistinct is the land when approaching.
Ane ua ike oe? 
Perhaps you have seen it?
Ua ike hoi wau ia Kahiki,
I have surely seen Kahiki,
He aina leo pahaohao wale Kahiki
A land with a strange language is Kahiki.
Noonei (or no'o ne'i) kanaka i pii ? luna.
The people of this place ascended up
A kuamoo o ka lani;
To the very backbone of heaven;
Keehi iho, nana iho ia lalo.
They trampled and looked down below.
Aole o Kahiki kanaka.
Kanakas (men of our race) are not in Kahiki.
Hookahi o Kahiki kanaka, he haole;
One kind of men is Kahiki the haole;
Me a'u la he akua, Me ia la he kanaka,
He is like a god, I am like a man
He akua o Ku-e
Ku is a god.

Where is the 'backbone of heaven? The Andes?
Does Haole really mean white person? 
Olopana was said by some to have been white. Lono (Orongo) was also said by some to have been white.
This chant explains the duality of origin of the Polynesian culture - one group from East Asia via Hawaii (Irapanga and Hawaiiloa oral histories) and the other golden haired people from Peru via Rapanui. Maori oral histories say Tangaroa and Orongo were two red haired brothers from Rapanui. 
In New Zealand there are many Iwi that had golden haired people with green eyes - and Taranaki Iwi (Nga Rauru) are descended from blonde haired green eyed Ruaputahanga, also the Ngati Hotu and the Waitaha - who's oral history also comes from Rapanui. Orongo is said to be the one who brought Kumera from South America. Tangaroa was the father of many Iwi.
But I always wondered how, when and where these two groups first met. 
The chant above seems to spell it out quite clearly. 
The fact that the Marae Taputapuatea on Raiatea - where Polynesian culture was said to be ignited - was built by Tangaroa for religious practices. So with Hawaiians voyaging down to Tahiti (the distant land) and seeing this - they would have been most impressed as is mentioned in the above chant. 
Unfortunately science is not picking up on this because the ancient red haired DNA is recessive, so it has all but disappeared, yet their culture (a remnant of the advanced cultures of Peru and the Andes) has clearly contributed significantly to the Eastern Polynesian culture. 
When Wallace first visited Tahiti 10% of the population had golden hair and pale skin and they saw a pyramid called Maha-ia-tea (lit meaning; many people white). When they returned two years later, the people were gone (died from disease brought by the white man) - and the pyramid destroyed. 
The Long Ears of Rapanui were also said to have had red hair. When Roggeven first visited Easter Island and named it such, he said the chief and many others were white. He then proceeded to shoot the chief.
Many people in the central Pacific have Kura as a suffix in their names - this also is believed by some to be in honour of their red haired ancestral lineage from red haired Tangaroa. 
In Tongareva they have a chant about coming from Lake Titicaca adding weight to the idea that 'the backbone of heaven is the Andes.
In Kiribati they also have a story of red haired people coming from the East and some families are also descended from the people they called 'children of the sun'.
Imagine when the Hawaiians first visited Tahiti - when it was a very different place, when the people there were similar to the tall lanky redheads of Rapanui, the red haired Araucano, the blonde people of Charchapoya, or Paracas redheads of Peru, following different gods and speaking a language they brought from Peru, Colombia or Ecuador – they would have been very surprised to see these unusual people in Tahiti.
To add weight to the Eastern Polynesians being a separate nation to the Tongan and Samoan chiefdoms is recent evidence of the basalt trade routes which shows the Tongan, Samoan and Fijian chiefdoms did not trade with Eastern Polynesia and Basalt from the Marquesas did not pass into Tonga or Samoa. Eastern Polynesian Kiore (Rattus exulans) shows a very active voyaging route (starting 2,200 years ago) between New Zealand and Hawaii via Rarotonga and Raiatea, but also no contact with Tonga or Samoa. The explanation for this can also be found in the story of Hawai'i Loa and a great grandson went to live in Samoa and adopted the cannibalism practices of the people already there. This led to the whole of Samoa, Tonga and Fiji to be a forbidden place for Hawaiian voyagers to go. It became known as Tongatapu (The Forbidden South). 


Basalt Trade

The following diagram is from; "Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific"

Geoffrey R. Clarka,1, Christian Reepmeyera, Nivaleti Melekiolab, Jon Woodheadc, William R. Dickinsond, and Helene Martinsson-Walline


It shows that the Basalt Trade network between Tutuila (American Samoa) and Tongatapu does not extend out to the Society Islands and therefore this archaeological evidence studying the trade of basalt in the central Pacific, does not support the theory that Eastern Polynesia was colonised from Tonga and Samoa. It clearly shows there were two independant trade networks in the central Pacific - which supports the oral histories that deny Samoa and Tonga as being the Eastern Polynesian homeland and were in fact a forbidden region to enter - the Forbidden South - Tongatapu.



Also supporting this archaeological evidence which shows two independant trade networks - West Polynesian and East Polynesia - is the work done by Lisa Matissoo-Smith on Kiore - the Polynesian Rat. This rat travelled in the voyaging canoes and their DNA very effectively traces the voyaging in East Polynesia. Once again the East Polynesian trade route did not go to Tonga or Samoa. It started in New Zealand 2,200 years ago and progressively extended northwards to the Kermadecs, then the Cook Islands, then Tahiti, then the Marquesas and then to Hawaii and ending with a lot of activity in the Society and Cook islands.


At the Mercy of Mother Nature

So why did the ancestral Polynesians leave the Taiwan area ~6000 years ago? We will notice from the graph below, the changing sea levels over the history of Homo sapiens. The sea level 6000 years ago was approximately 10 metres lower - the time that Polynesians were linguistically and genetically disconnected from Taiwan. According to genetic studies, they went through a genetic bottleneck. (a population crash or survival voyage).

Rising sealevels have been a significant incentive for migrations.This graph indicates approximate fluctuations in sea level that Homo sapiens have had to deal with. The graph only applies to geologically stable areas unaffected by glaciation. Northern landmasses actually witness an apparent drop in sea level, as the land slowly “floats” up when the weight of ice sheets are removed. Areas near subduction zones, that are experiencing uplifting, such as New Guinea have experienced different fluctuations in sea level. The continental shelves depicted in turquoise in the map below would have mostly experienced sea level fluctuations as shown.



Kuroshio Current, the most significant reason why Austronesian genes have appeared in many places along the coast of North and South America.

The Turquoise area is between 30m and 140m and would have been habitable land 18,000 years ago. The yellow area is between 0 and 30 metres below sea level. And would have started disappearing under the waves about 9000 years ago.

Just south of Taiwan, is a large area approximately 200 km by 90km and is approximately 8 metres below sea level. this would have disappeared under the waves approximately 6000 years ago. The Taiwan Banks would have been a large island capable of sustaining a unique culture such as the Polynesians for over 5,000 years.


 Taiwan Banks, possible 6000B.P. homeland of  ancestral Polynesians. Red lines show the possible position of ancient causway linking Taiwan with China.

1. Eastern end of Ancient Causway with underwater ruins visible on northern end of Taiwan Banks.

2. 10,000 year old Underwater structures at Yonaguni-jima, near Okinawa.

3. Ancient Causeway linking Sri Lanka with India.

The great wall of China, although much more recent was obviously inspired by these earlier ambitious engineering projects.

One can only speculate that the big flood mentioned in the Hawaiian legend that occurred on the bosom of Kane was a Typhoon associated with a storm surge that washed over the island, taking the remaining forest along with the inhabitants. Tsunamis from earthquakes as well as meteorite impacts in the Pacific must also be considered as a cause for the collapse of this significant civilization along the Eastern seaboard of Asia.

Other lost islands in S.E. Asia

The Taiwan Banks is not the only large island that has been lost to rising sea levels. Macceslfield banks is approximately 9 m below sea level, and Reeds Tablemount is approximately 18 metres below sea level.

Situated East of Vietnam and West of the Phillipines, the Macceslfield Banks are

surrounded by currents leading into the Kuroshio current. This large island would have dissappeared

under the waves about 7,000 years ago.

Reed Tablemount is situated north of Borneo, home of Iban longear seafarers.Most of

this area would have dissappeared under the waves approximately 9000 years ago.

It is also surrounded by currents leading into the Kuroshio current.

By doing detailed studies of the rate of rise in sea levels, relating these to the time that these islands went underwater and comparing this information to observed genetic bottlenecks, these areas may possibly be chronologically matched up with other Asian gene pools at the other end of the Kuroshio current.

For example; James L Guthrie notes that HLA B15 has its highest levels in Bali and Sumatra, the second highest levels are from the Paez speaking Warao and Atacama of South America.The Aymara speakers of South America have the third highest level. These genetic origins are possibly from as much as 10,000 years ago.

The Cherokee, Paijanense of Peru and Quechua all have South and East Asian Origins.

South East Asia was not the only place to experience rapidlt rising sea levels 6-8,000 year ago. the Bahama Banks was a significant island in the Caribbean, which with future archaeological studies may prove to be a dispersal point of a civilization that not only influenced Central American cultures, but also Celtic and Polynesian culture.

1.Tahitian woman with turtle. 2.Women of Huahine.

What is the Polynesian connection to the Legendary 'Sea People' of  Tulapin?

Tulapin or Turtle Island is a land that was destroyed by a tsunami and

disappeared under the waves 8,000 years ago. It is now known as the Bahama Banks.

Numerous floors, foundations and pavements still lie hidden under the shifting sands.

3.Gold/Copper alloy bust found in Venezuela. 4. Bahama Banks, a very significant island 8,000years ago. Known as Turtle Island (Tulapin). Egyptian records from 5,500 years ago states that "The Turtle is Dead" a possible reference to catastrophic sinking of this island. Anasazi people speak of this island as their ancestral homeland. The Anasazi share many legends with the Celts and Basques. The Celts and Maori also share some cultural similarities that remain unexplained (spiral motif, dragon symbol and village fortification design).


Voyaging was commonplace in ancient times

These Asian migrations to America are only part of the Pacific picture, as we will see in future chapters.

The native American population is a product of many migrations over time, the most significant times of oceanic trade (periods of globalisation) were 12,000, 8,000, 4,000 , 3,000 and 1,000 years ago.

It appears the Egyptians/Mesopotamians had a port at Gavea on the East coast of South America, they would travel up the Uruguay and Parana Rivers mining tin for bronze, silver and gold as well as trading for Cocaine which they brought back to Egypt. They left a trail of names prefixed with Ur, stretching across South America to Lake Titicaca. Some of these people, known as 'Children of the Sun' in South America, took the religion of Ra into the Pacific, where it manifested itself in island names such as the island of Ra'iatea (Sun people white) and the pyramid of Maha'iatea (Many people white).



              1, Lord Anu, from; "The Genius of the Few" Christian O'Brien.

              2. Modified rock outcrop, harbour entrance, Gavea, South America. Egyptian artefacts

                  have been found nearby.

                  3. Wandjina images from the Kimberleys, West Australia. Superimposed is a statuette of Persian Lady Ninkharsag.

The white skin, frizzy red hair and small mouths are very intriguing, the large eyes are also an enigma. Large eyes are usually the product of living in low light conditions. Is there a connection between these people and the people who once inhabited the massive subterranean cavern systems found in Turkey and Malta? What were they hiding from? Meteor bombardments? Meteoric Iridium and volcanic ash in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores from 11 - 20,000 years ago does seem to suggest an anusually large amount of impacts during this period.


Gwion Gwion or Bradshaw paintings from over 17,000 years ago in the Kimberlies, depicting the 'dance of the 9 maidens'. On Yami island, south of Taiwan is the same dance being performed today, suggesting that both these people have strong cultural connection through a parent (seafaring) civilization in the distant past.Gwion Gwion paintings also depict high prowed (ocean going) boats carrying 30 people confirming their seafaring ability 20,000 years ago.

The fact that Egyptians took home the boomerang as a souvenir also indicates the extent of their travels. Papyrus in Cape York, the Indian Lotus flower across the swamps of the north and the Baobab tree are all believed to be evidence of these ancient voyagers visiting the shores of Australia in ancient times. Clovis style spear points and ancient forts have also been found along the Southern coast of Western Australia. Phoenician petroglyphs have been found in Tasmania and South Australia. Egyptian Scarab beetle carvings and bronze axe heads have been found in the Blue mountains, and there is a Phoenician wharf in Sarina made of smelter slag.

1. Hindu elephant god, found near Toowoomba, similar ones have also been found in Central America.

2. Wandgina figure from the Kimberlies with Phoenician writing on the turban. The white face and red robe depicts what were known as 'The Shining Ones' in Hebrew scripts, the people who brought science to the Sumerians 10,000 years ago to begin western civilization as we know it today.

3. Bronze Chariot axle, Sarina Qld.

4. Hopi sun god, excavated in Toowoomba believed to be from the La Tolita - pre-Mayan culture from 4,000 years ago.


1. Egyptian heiroglyphics, Western Tasmania, the home of the taller semitic Aborigines of the island.

2.Phoenician writing, South Australia. It reads, "Men of the Pharaoh of the city of Sais. Ot of Kish." Ot was a famous Egyptian navigator.

3,4,5. Egyptian heiroglyphics found near Gosford, Australia. Apparently it tells of an exploratory voyage, where their ship was damaged and their leader died of a snake bite. Although some petroglyphs have been re-carved by misguided individuals in recent times, signatures of the carver, such as the squiggle protruding from the top of the beak (above) are in keeping with 4th dynasty tradition, confirming their authenticity.

The middle cartouch depicts Kufu, the right cartouch depicts Sneferu, Kufu's father, placing the carvings

from the 4th Dynasty between 2,800-2250BC. Kufu was known to have encouraged extensive seafaring. Photos by Tom Walter.

More recently, in the year 232 BC, Captain Rata and Navigator Maui set sail from Alexandria to circumnavigate the globe using a Tanawa or Torquetum to measure latitude and longitude using the moon as a reference point. Visiting Pitcairn Island, they left petroglyphs indicating they had viewed a lunar eclipse whilst on the island. (History almost repeated itself when Captain Cook stopped in Tahiti to view the transit of Venus across the sun).

In New Guinea, they left a petroglyph depicting the Tanawa as proof of their passage.

Also confirming their passage through the Pacific, the Maori of New Zealand attribute the discovery of New Zealand to Maui. Rata also features in Maori legend as a man who ventured into the Pacific on a vengeful mission in search of his father's killer. Interestingly, although the Maori have lost the knowledge of the operation of the Tanawa through the mists of time, they still believe possession of a Taniwha will ensure the safe passage across the ocean. The Taniwha is depicted as a dragon, hinting at the religion or clan that Maui belonged to. It would seem from this information that the Maori of the central Pacific knew of the location of New Zealand for over a thousand years but only chose to colonize it fully when wars in the central Pacific one thousand years ago, forced them to leave their tropical paradise.

Other wayward voyagers to Australia and New Zealand could have been from people arriving by the Easterly flowing Current across the Indian ocean from Southern Africa, pushed by the Westerly winds, coming ashore along the southern coast of Australia Tasmania and New Zealand. Similar to the Dutch East India Company ships that came to grief along the Australian coastline, because they underestimated their speed across the Indian Ocean.

Apparently there was a tribe living near Palm Valley with blonde hair and Dutch names, they were shot by the English colonials, fearing a Dutch claim for sovereignty. In Victoria there are remains of stone buildings similar to Phoenician dwellings.

The Egyptians were not the first foreigners to visit Australia. Clovis style spear points have been found on the Nullarbor, Stone monuments set up for observing the summer/winter solstice (similar to Stone Henge) have also been found in South Australia. There is even an ancient fort on the coastline East of Esperance. 10,000 year old petroglyphs have been found in the Flinders ranges, Australia. They are similar in design to other petroglyphs of a similar age found throughout the world and probably represent one of the most ancient writing systems. They have a striking similarity to ones found in underwater caves in the Carribean as well as in America.

Petroglyphs in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia and Petroglyphs in North America. These petroglyphs are both thought to be over 10,000 years old and could well have been drawn by people of the same language. There are two possibilities, the first is that the Veda/Anu (early aborigines), once spoke the same language and used the same writing system as Cro Magnon man, the second is that the Clovis/Solutrean people explored the whole world, including Australia.

It has always been an enigma why Tasmanian Aboriginals were different in looks and culture to mainland Aborigines, more than this there were two distinct groups in Tasmania - Truganinni's tribe were a mix of Negritos with Aborigines from one of the earliest migrations to Australia 60,000 - 100,000 years ago, but on the Western side of the island there were a much taller people, they used papyrus rafts and were more semitic in looks, similar to the Chatham islanders of New Zealand. These people lived near a place where Egyptian inscriptions were found. Unfortunately the English colonials killed every Tasmanian, so genetic data cannot be analysed.

Truganinni - the last Tasmanian, her eyes speak of unimaginable pain -

to see her family, tribe and race unjustifiably destroyed

by heartless Christian colonists after they had raped her.

Secrets of World's Oldest Boat are discovered in Kuwait Sands

This article further proves that people did have the technology for voyaging the oceans over 7,000 years ago.

A BRITISH team of archaeologists believes that small slabs of bitumen dug up in Kuwait could hold evidence that man was building ocean-going boats over 7,000 years ago.  

The bitumen pieces, dating from 5,000BC, are indented on one side by impressions of reeds and encrusted with barnacles on the other. The team, led by Robert Carter, from University College London, made the discovery while unearthing a Neolithic human settlement at Subiya, on the northern shore of Kuwait Bay, at the top of the Gulf.

The Subiya site in Kuwait yielded pieces of bitumen from 5,000BC, evidence of early boat building, while archaeoligists were unearthing a Neolithic human site  

“From the point of view of early trade, and early seafaring, this is a very, very important find,” said Dr Carter. ‘These are certainly the earliest fragments of boats ever found in the Gulf, and possibly in the world.”  

The team, which included archaeology experts from Cambridge and York universities, said what made the dig particularly exciting had been the discovery of a model boat from the same period. 

“It has a surprising amount of detail on it, telling us a lot about how this community constructed its boats. There are lines coming down from the prow and the stern, which may be junctions of reed bundles, or ropes, and it's got two indentations for wood to be laid across it,” Dr Carter said.


Before the days of the train and motor vehicle, ships were an immensly important vehicle by which trade was carried out between cultures. The rivers of the ocean were their highways. Ancient writings state that there were 12 main rivers of the ocean.

These can easily be be identified as follows;

In the Atlantic Ocean flowing West; (1) the Southern equatorial current, (2) the northern Equarorial current, (3) the East Greenland Current.

Flowing East (4) the Gulf stream, (5) the south Atlantic westerly current.

In the Indian Ocean flowing West; (6) the Southern Equatorial current, (7) the Southern Ocean Westerly current.

Flowing East;(8) the N.E Monsoonal drift. (9) Equatorial Counter current

In the Pacific Ocean flowing West; (10) the Southern Equatorial current, (11) the Northern Equatorial current.

Flowing East; (12) the Kuroshio Current.

The Bering land bridge theory was such a simple concept, unfortunately it was not logical - Who would want to go so far north during the height of an ice age? I am sure a relaxing voyage, in the tropics, with the wind behind you and the occasional stop off at a tropical island paradise would have been a far more attractive alternative.

It would be nice if  human movement around the planet was simple, straight forward, with no return journeys and they did not enter the water, but it was not so.

It appears that the fear Europeans had of falling off the edge of the earth was a recent myth, generated by the church in Europe during the middle ages. Early man certainly had "No Fear" of the Ocean and took full advantage of the trade opportunities it had to offer. The Pacific, although a little more isolated from the rest of the world was at times included in this world trade network which stretched from Portugal, through the Caribbean and into the heart of Melanesia and can be seen from the evidence left by the Obsidian traders and Lapita potters, between 4,000 and 2,800 years ago. We will cover this in the chapter on Lapita pottery.